The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of right-unilateral lesion of substantia nigra neurons by means of Ibotenic acid, a cholinergic-selective neurotoxin, on hematological parameters in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 200±50 g at the start of the experiment were used. The substantia nigra was right-unilateral lesioned by stereotaxic microinjections of ibotonic acid. Seven days after neurosurgery, we assessed the total number of White Blood Cells (WBC), the total number of Red Blood Cells (RBC), Red Cell Distribution (RDW), platelet and hemoglobin level and the erythrocyte indexes (Mean Cell Volume, (MCV), Mean Cell Hemoglobin,(MCH), Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)). Ibotenic acid treatment induced a highly significantly decrease of white blood cells, followed by significant decrease in red blood cells and hemoglobin level comparative with sham-operated rats. Also in the ibotenic acid-lesioned rats the erythrocyte indexes (Mean Cell Volume, MCV; Mean Cell Hemoglobin, MCH were significantly decreased comparative with sham-operated rats. By contrast, platelets, mean cell hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell distribution width were significantly increased in the ibotonic-acid lesioned rat versus sham-operated animals. On the whole, the obtained data indicate the important role of the central nerves system in the regulation of erythrocyte dynamics.