A quantitative and qualitative study of the phyllosphere microflora of Aloe vera, a medicinal plant with healing properties, is reported. Bacteria and yeast densities were relatively high. The bacteria were represented mainly by facultatively anaerobic genera, with a domination of Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Erwinia). Pseudomonadaceae (Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas) were the second group in terms of population densities. Lactobacillus, Micrococcus and Streptococci were also observed at low frequencies. The bacterial diversity appeared more important in October than in March. The most common fungal genera were identified. Blended leaf fermentation induced transformations of microbial population structure: Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas and Micrococcus were not detectable, whereas Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus and Streptococci (fermentative bacteria) became more abundant. Yeasts were also highly stimulated in fermented leaves.