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International Journal of Virology
  Year: 2011 | Volume: 7 | Issue: 3 | Page No.: 100-108
DOI: 10.3923/ijv.2011.100.108
An Egyptian Study of Mother to Child Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus
Enas K. Abo Elmagd, Kouka S. Abdel-Wahab, Zeinab E. Alrasheedy and Ahmed S. Khalifa

Abstract:
This study aims to assess markers of hepatitis C Virus (HCV) including HCV antigen detection in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) lysates, antibodies to HCV core, NS3, NS4 and NS5 epitopes by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) in mothers and their infants using serum samples for both mothers and infants plus saliva for infants, in addition to detection of serum HCV-RNA (viremia) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Also detection of anti-HIV IgG class antibodies in mothers’ sera. The study sample included 61 pairs of 20-40 years old Egyptian mothers and their infants whose ages ranged from one day to 12 months. All the deliveries were vaginal. Neither the infants nor the mothers had a history of high risk exposure to percutaneous virus transmission. Commercial ELISA kits for IgG, IgM, IgA anti-HCV epitopes and RT-PCR kits were used according to kit instructions. Dot ELISA for detection of HCV antigen in infants PBMNC lysates was an in house test. Previous exposure to HCV infection indicated by antibodies to the HCV six epitopes was detected in 8/61 (13%) mothers. Active HCV infection by anti-core and HCV-RNA detection was 5/8 (62.5%). All mother samples were negative for HIV antibodies. The infants born to those 8 mothers included four {4/8(50%)} having serum IgG antibodies to HCV epitopes. None of these four infants had saliva IgM anti-HCV and one had saliva IgA antibodies to HCV epitopes excluding NS5. The PBMNC lysates belonging to these eight infants contained HCV- antigen in two samples {2/8(25%)}, and these two infants had serum HCV-RNA (i.e viremia). In our HCV markers assessment the detection of HCV RNA in mothers' sera as well as anti-core and anti-NS 3 was informative of HCV infectious potential of the mother. PBMNC lysate for HCV antigen detection or saliva sample instead of serum for antibody/RNA detection were not sensitive. Antibodies detected in the 7 days to 6 months old infants were passively transmitted maternal antibodies as there was no anti-HCV in the 6-12 months old infants’ sera. There are two limitations in this small sized study: one is the unknown HCV-RNA load in viremic mothers, the second is the duration to study mother and infant pairs over 1-2 years.
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How to cite this article:

Enas K. Abo Elmagd, Kouka S. Abdel-Wahab, Zeinab E. Alrasheedy and Ahmed S. Khalifa, 2011. An Egyptian Study of Mother to Child Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus. International Journal of Virology, 7: 100-108.

DOI: 10.3923/ijv.2011.100.108

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijv.2011.100.108

 
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