Recent studies on the improvement and development of oestrus detection and timing of insemination are reviewed with emphasis on: i. Characteristics of oestrus circle, ii. Factors affecting the intensity and duration of heat, iii. Method of improving efficiency of oestrus detection program, iv. Recognition of oestrus signs such as primary and secondary signs of oestrus, v. oestrus detection aids, vi. Insemination time and vii. Evaluation of heat detection efficiency. In our opinion these procedures help in developing awareness of the physiological changes occurring in the cow and how to control a cow`s reproductive cycle to obtain maximum efficiency are described.