Intermittent hypoxia (repeated episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation) (IH) is widespread phenomenon that occurs in a variety of both normal physiologic and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying IH are not well understood. Numerous studies have shown effectiveness of mild IH in adaptation to hypoxia and in formation of cells resistance to another stresses. It is known that moderate concentration of intracellular ROS is involved in a cascade of intra-cellular redox signaling with subsequent activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and O2-responsive genes. Many of the basic events of cell genetic regulation are driven by the oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis, especially by the thiol-disulfide balance. Purpose of the article is to summarize the current information concerning effects of preferentially investigated modes of IH: the chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia as well as acute and chronic normobaric short-cycle IH on cells prooxidant/antioxidant balance. We have focused on the regulation of the redox-sensitivity transcription factors such as HIF-1, NF-kB, AP-1 and Nrf2 by oxidants, antioxidants and other factors that influence intracellular redox status and possible participation of these transcription factors in the forming of adaptive responses to hypoxia/reoxygenation.