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Journal of Biological Sciences
  Year: 2014 | Volume: 14 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 38-51
DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2014.38.51
Glanders-A Re-emerging Zoonotic Disease: A Review
Amit Kumar Verma, Mani Saminathan , Neha , Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh

Abstract:
Glanders is a contagious and highly fatal zoonotic disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules as well as man leading to formation of nodules and ulcerations in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. This is a notifiable disease under Glanders and Farcy Act, 1899. The disease is caused by Burkholderia mallei, a gram negative bacteria, non-spore forming, non-motile rod bacterium and is a facultative intracellular pathogen. The disease has been eradicated from many countries by testing and destruction diseased horses and restriction of import of animals. However, the disease is endemic in Africa, Asia, Mongolia, Middle East, Central and South America. In India, major glanders outbreaks were reported between 1976 to 1982 from different parts of the country. Later, sporadic cases were reported in 1988, 1990 and 1998. India was remained free of glanders for 8 years until recent re-emerging outbreaks started from 2006 to 2011. The occurrence of the disease leads to international trade restrictions. Glanders is primarily a disease of equines which causes chronic disease in horses and acute disease in donkeys and mules. Human is accidental host and the disease usually results from occupational exposure. Though the organism is susceptible to various antibiotics in vitro treatment is difficult and needs longer course with combination of antibiotics upon early diagnosis. It can be used as a biological weapon and has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a category B bio-threat agent and at present no vaccine is available for this bacterium either in humans or animals. This review describes this important disease covering its etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, public health significance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention and control strategies to be adapted to combat this deadly zoonotic pathogen.
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How to cite this article:

Amit Kumar Verma, Mani Saminathan , Neha , Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh , 2014. Glanders-A Re-emerging Zoonotic Disease: A Review. Journal of Biological Sciences, 14: 38-51.

DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2014.38.51

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jbs.2014.38.51

 
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