All larval instars of the cotton leafworm, S. littoralis were found susceptible to sorghum seedlings extract which markedly affected the viability of eggs, particularly 3-day old eggs and neonate larvae. Latent effects of the extract on subsequent instars of survivors was also obvious as retarding development, shortening of adult longevity and reducing egg production / female moth. Indirect effects of sorghum extract on the parasitoid, M. rufiventris were studied in relation to egg-larval development, pupal period, percent parasitoid emergence and adult longevity.
M. Hafez , M.M. Matter and A.A. Younes , 2003. Entomocidal effects of Sorghum seedlings extract on the cotton leafworm, Spodopteralittoralis Boisduval and its parasitoid, Microplitisrufiventris Kokujiv. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6: 1649-1654.