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Articles by A. Lodhi
Total Records ( 6 ) for A. Lodhi
  F. Azam , M.H. Sajjad , A. Lodhi and R.M. Qureshi
  Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to study I) the dynamics over time of mineral N, mineralizable N and humus N during decomposition in soil of leguminous and non-leguminous plant material and ii) the impact of these changes on growth and N nutrition of wheat fertilized with 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate. Finely ground straw of wheat, maize and sesbania was allowed to decompose in soil for 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Sub-samples of soil were analyzed for the content of mineral N, mineralizable N and humus N. The bulk soil was sown to wheat and the plants harvested at maturity. Nitrogen as 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate was applied in two split doses of 40 and 60 mg kg-1 soil. Accumulation of mineral N in soil during 8 weeks of residue decomposition was found to depend on the chemistry of plant residues, more mineral N being released in soil amended with plant residues with narrow C/N ratio i.e., maize and sesbania. These residues also contributed more to humus N and maintained a higher content of potentially mineralizable N. Wheat straw not only caused a net immobilization of N during 8 weeks of aerobic incubation but a substantially higher loss of NO3¯+NO2¯ -N during subsequent incubation under submerged conditions. The loss of NO3¯+NO2¯ -N was more where residues were given less time for decomposition. Plant residues applied immediately before sowing wheat or those allowed shorter period of decomposition had a negative effect on plant growth. Of the three residue types, wheat straw caused a higher reduction in plant growth. This was attributed mainly to significantly reduced availability to plants of soil-N, while uptake of fertilizer N was affected almost similarly by the three types of residues. Residues of maize and sesbania had a positive effect on grain yield and total biomass of wheat. As a whole, ca 30% of the fertilizer N applied was taken up by the plants and >40% was unaccounted in the soil-plant system, fertilizer N remaining in soil being <30% of the applied. Relatively higher proportion of the applied N remained in amended than unamended soil after crop harvest.
  M.H. Sajjad , H.N. Bhatti , A. Lodhi and F. Azam
  Soil samples amended with powdered plant material of wheat, maize, and sesbania were incubated for 8 weeks at moisture content of 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and 22-26oC for 8 weeks. At 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of incubation, portions of soil were analyzed for I) total C and its distribution in humic and fulvic acid fractions and ii) optical properties of humic acid. Humus fractions were extracted with both sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7). Higher amounts of humus C were extracted with NaOH than with Na4P2O7; the treatment differences were more obvious in former. Organic amendment resulted in higher amounts of humic and fulvic acid; more humus C being found in soil amended with maize and wheat. More N was determined in humic acid compared with fulvic acid following the extraction of soil with NaOH. Nature of organic amendment and the extractant used had a significant effect on C/N ratio of humic compounds. Optical density of the humic acid fraction decreased at the increasing wavelength and was correlated significantly with the C content of humic acid. Duration of incubation and nature of amendment had a significant effect on the polymerization and maturity of the humic acid fraction.
  F. Azam and A. Lodhi
  Interactive effect of inorganic fertilizer and sewage sludge on nitrogen nutrition and growth of wheat was studied. Nitrogen was applied as 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4 at 0, 50 , 150, and 300 mg pot–1 in all possible combinations with 0, 16, 24, 32, and 64 g pot–1sewage sludge (SS). Fertilizer N had no significant effect on the dry weight of roots. The above-ground plant components responded positively to the application of both fertilizer N and SS. The positive effect increased with the rate of application. In absence of SS, grain yield increased from 4.8 g pot–1 in the control to 10.6 g pot–1 at the highest level of fertilizer N. Likewise, the increase in grain yield due to different treatments ranged between 97 and 233% as compared to 23.3 and 82.5% recorded for straw component. The trends in N content of different plant components were fairly similar to those observed for dry matter yield and a significant correlation was observed between two parameters. Combination of both treatments at highest rate resulted in 127% increase in the total N yield of the plants. The contribution of N fertilizer to the total N content of the whole plant and its components remained fairly low and ranged between 11 and 45% in different treatments. The percent fertilizer N uptake (%FNU) varied from 22.6% at the highest level of application in the absence of sludge to 79.4% at the lowest level of application and in the presence of highest amount of SS. Fertilizer N uptake increased with the amount of SS; the extent of increase being more at the lower level of fertilizer N. Application of SS significantly improved the amount of unlabeled N determined in plants, with maximum effect being observed at the highest level of application. A part of this increase was due to N uptake from SS itself, while a substantial amount could be derived from the soil organic matter.
  F. Azam , S. Farooq and A. Lodhi
  Microbial biomass is a small but labile component of soil organic matter and plays an important role in cycling and other nutrient elements. Because of its importance in the functioning of different ecosystems, synthesis/dynamics of microbial biomass and its role in plant nutrition under different ecosystem conditions has assumed greater significance. In the same perspective, developing quick and convenient methods of determination have been of immense research interest for the least few decades. As a result significant improvements have thus far been made although no single method is devoid of snags. This paper presents I) a critical evaluation of methods to determine microbial biomass and ii) a review on the formation/dynamics of microbial biomass and its role in plant nutrition. Since carbon © and nitrogen (N) are the major elements, special attention has been given to these while discussing microbial biomass.
  F. Azam , F. Aziz , S. Farooq and A. Lodhi
  A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the chamber effect on growth and nitrogen fixation in Sesbania aculeata (L.) at two levels each of soil salinity (electrical conductivity 4.65 and 7.23 dS m-1) and moisture (15 and 25%, v/w). The plants were grown either in the open or placed in an open-top polyethylene chamber and harvested 6 weeks after seed sowing. Salinization of soil led to a decrease, while higher moisture caused an increase, in different growth attributes of the plants. Growth reduction due to salt stress was less than that due to low moisture stress. Plants kept in the open-top polyethylene chamber showed better growth than those placed outside (in the open); all the parameters studied were better in the chamber. Chamber effect measured as Biomass Enhancement Ratio (BER) averaged 1.22 for different salinity and moisture treatments. However, root biomass of plants grown in the chamber was less than those grown in the open. Negative effect of salinity and low moisture was mitigated to a significant extent under chamber conditions. The analysis of root and shoot material for total N and 15N showed significant amounts of N2 being fixed as measured by isotopic dilution technique. Significantly higher amounts of N were fixed at 25 than 15% soil moisture; soil salinity had a depressing effect on the amount of N2 fixed. The contribution of biologically-fixed N (Ndfa) to the total N content of shoot and root portions was 23-62% and 21-52%, respectively, under different growth conditions. Contribution of Ndfa decreased with salinity but was more at 25% than 15% soil moisture.
  M.H. Sajjad , F. Azam and A. Lodhi
  Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the changes in mineral N, humus N and plant available N during following decomposition of plant residues (wheat straw, maize straw and sesbania straw) for different time periods. Accumulation of mineral N in soil was found to depend on the chemistry of plant residues, more mineral N being released in soil amended with plant residues with narrow C/N ratio i.e., maize and sesbania. These residues also contributed more to humus N and maintained a higher content of potentially mineralizable N. Wheat straw not only caused a net immobilization of N during 8 weeks of aerobic but a substantially higher loss of NO3 +NO2 -N during anaerobic incubation. The loss of N under these conditions appeared to depend on the length of time the residues were allowed to decompose in the soil, more losses being recorded for residues at early stages of decomposition. Undecomposed or partially decomposed plant residues had a negative effect on plant (wheat) growth; the effect was positively related to N uptake by plants. The negative effect was eliminated by increasing the time of residue decomposition to 8 weeks at which point maize and sesbania had a positive effect on grain yield and total biomass of wheat. Since N availability could be the main yield determining factor, sufficient time for residue decomposition will be required to achieve net N mineralization and thus improved plant growth especially for plant residues with a wide C/N ratio. However, the N released during aerobic incubation (or during land preparation prior to planting) may indeed be lost at first irrigation from the soil-plant system depending upon the content of easily oxidizable organic C.
 
 
 
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