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Articles by A. N. Wade
Total Records ( 2 ) for A. N. Wade
  D. P. French , A. N. Wade , P. Yudkin , H. A. W. Neil , A. L. Kinmonths and A. J. Farmer

Aims To determine whether differences in beliefs about diabetes and its treatment resulted from different intensities of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin treated patients with Type 2 diabetes in the Diabetes Glycaemic Education and Monitoring (DiGEM) trial.

Methods Patients (n = 453) were randomized to usual care, less-intensive SMBG and more intensive SMBG. Beliefs about diabetes were measured with a standard questionnaire (the revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire; IPQ-R). Changes in beliefs were analysed using analysis of covariance (ancova) with adjustment for baseline values. Mediation analyses assessed whether differences in behavioural outcomes between groups could be attributed to differences in beliefs.

Results Completed questionnaires were returned by 339 patients (74.8%). Respondents were mean (± sd) age 65.9 ± 10 years and with diabetes duration of 4.8 ± 4.7 years (median 36, range 1–384 months). Concerns about the consequences of diabetes increased in both self-monitoring groups, relative to control subjects [P = 0.004; Cohen’s d standardized effect size = 0.19 less intensive and d = 0.36 more intensive monitoring]. No other beliefs about diabetes differed between groups. Beliefs about the importance of self-testing increased in both self-monitoring groups relative to the usual-care group (P < 0.001; d = 0.57 less intensive and d = 0.63 more intensive monitoring). Changes in psychological well-being did not differ between groups, but control patients reported greater increases in general (P = 0.014) and specific (P < 0.001) dietary adherence than did patients in the self-monitoring groups. These outcomes were not mediated by intervention-related changes in beliefs.

Conclusions Despite changes in some beliefs about diabetes differing between groups there were no corresponding changes in self-reported health behaviours. This suggests that changes in illness beliefs resulting from SMBG do not cause changes in diabetes-related health behaviours.

  U. L. Malanda , S. D. Bot , D. P. French , P. J. Kostense , A. N. Wade , J. M. Dekker , G. Nijpels and A. J. Farmer
  Aim  Hypoglycaemia may have a detrimental impact on quality of life for patients with Type 2 diabetes. There are few clinical studies exploring the impact of experiencing hypoglycaemia on beliefs about diabetes and health status. The aim of this study was to explore associations between experience of hypoglycaemia and changes in diabetes beliefs and self-reported health status in patients with non-insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes using a blood glucose meter.

Methods  One-year prospective cohort analysis of 226 patients recruited to a randomized trial evaluating the impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose. Self-reported hypoglycaemia over 1 year was categorized into three groups: (1) no experience of hypoglycaemia; (2) blood glucose measurements < 4 mmol/l with no associated symptoms of hypoglycaemia (grade 1); and (3) symptomatic hypoglycaemia (grade 2 and 3). Measures of beliefs about diabetes (Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire) and health status (EuroQol-5D) were assessed at baseline and 1 year. Differences in mean changes over 1 year were explored with analyses of covariance.

Results  There was a significant increase in mean score in beliefs about personal control (1.14; 95% CI 0.14-2.14) among those experiencing grade 1 hypoglycaemia compared with those not experiencing hypoglycaemia. There were no significant differences in changes in health status between groups, with small overall changes that were inconsistent between groups.

Conclusions  This study does not provide support for a long-term adverse impact on beliefs about diabetes or health status from the experience of mild symptomatic hypoglycaemia, in well-controlled, non-insulin-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes using self-monitoring of blood glucose.

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