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Articles by A.E. Ghaly
Total Records ( 25 ) for A.E. Ghaly
  A. Snow and A.E. Ghaly
  A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The aim was to protect a freshwater ecosystem that consists of a 4.6 km long brook and two lakes. A comparative analysis of the pH, total and plant available iron, total and plant available manganese and organic carbon content of a saturated soil collected from a naturally vegetated island in the constructed wetland and a drained soil collected from a nearby forest was performed. The pH of the soil of the constructed wetland was significantly greater than the pH of the forest soil. The total iron concentrations in the soil of the constructed wetland were significantly greater than those in the forest soil. There was no significant difference between the plant available iron concentrations in the soil of the constructed wetland and those in the forest soil. The total manganese and the plant available manganese concentrations in the soil of the constructed wetland were significantly greater than those in the forest soil. There was no significant difference between the organic carbon concentrations in the soil of the constructed wetland and those in the forest soil.
  A.M. Snow and A.E. Ghaly
  The feasibility of using wastewater grown barley plants as a component of fish feed was evaluated. The barley plants were grown in a hydroponics system on wastewater from a recirculating aquaculture facility. The effects of wastewater application rate on plant growth and pollution potential reduction were investigated. At the end of the experiment, the average crop heights and yields were 31.0 and 36.0 cm and 59 and 83 t ha -1 at wastewater application rates of 690 and 1380 mL compartment -1 day -1, respectively. The hydroponics system reduced the TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO4 -3-P of the aquaculture wastewater by 51.5-52.9, 72.3-72.3, 81.8-82.3, 97.9-98.2, 78.9-79.7 and 84.7-86.3%, respectively. The aquaculture wastewater grown barley met the energy, fat, Ca, Mg, P, Na, S and Mn dietary requirements of aquatic animals. It exceeded the carbohydrate, crude fiber, Cl, K, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn dietary requirements of fish and shellfish. It did not contain sufficient amounts of protein. The aquaculture wastewater grown barley could potential be used as a component in fish feed, but will require supplementation with a high protein source that contains low concentrations of carbohydrate, crude fiber, Cl, K, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn. Common protein sources that could be used for supplementation included fishmeal, bone meal and blood meal.
  C.C. Galbrand , A.M. Snow , A.E. Ghaly and R. Cote
  A surface flow constructed wetland, designed to curve in a kidney shape in order to increase the length to width ratio to 5:1 was used to treat runoff from an industrial park. A natural wetland system located approximately 200 m downstream of the constructed wetland was selected to act as the vegetative community model for the constructed wetland. The selected model was a riparian, open water marsh dominated by emergent macrophytes. Baseline plant species surveying was conducted. In total, 21 emergent wetland plant species, 40 upland vascular plant species, 17 upland shrub species and 13 upland tree species were identified in the model site. The species from the model site were screened for suitability in the constructed wetland based on the following criteria: (a) phytoremediation potential (especially metal uptake), (b) sedimentation and erosion control, (c) habitat function, (d) public deterrent potential and (e) rate of plant establishment, tolerances and maintenance requirements. Transplantation was chosen as the main vegetation establishment methodology in the constructed wetland. The species woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) and soft rush (Juncus effusus) were chosen to dominate the interior berms and littoral edges of the constructed wetland cells. The buffer areas were dominated by meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia) and the open water areas were dominated by cowlily (Nuphar variegate) and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata) species. A diverse, self-sustaining vegetative community was successfully established in the constructed wetland. The transplant success was gauged by mortality census in the spring of 2003. Over all, 138 dead transplants were observed, many of which had died as a direct result of washout. These computes to an overall site establish success rate of about 87.3%. The species, which suffered the highest mortality rates, were the pickerelweed, with approximately 50 dead plants, the meadowsweet with 32 observed dead plants and woolgrass with 27 dead plants.
  A.E. Ghaly and F.N. Alkoaik
  Problem statement: Yellow mealworms of different sizes (4.8-182.7 mg) were grown in a medium of wheat flour and brewer’s yeast (95:5 by weight) to evaluate their potential as a protein source. Approach: There was an initial adjustment period (3-9 days) observed during which the younger larvae (4.8-61.1 mg) grew slowly while the older ones (80.3-182.7 mg) lost weight. After this initial period, the younger larvae (4.8-122.1 mg) increased in weight while the older ones (139.6-182.7 mg) continued to lose weight as they entered the pupal stage. For efficient production of larvae, they should be harvested at a weight of 100-110 mg. The moisture issue in the medium presents an important management problem for commercial production. Results: A system in which eggs are separate from adults and hatched in separate chambers would alleviate the danger of losing the larval population due to microbial infection. The moisture, ash, protein and fat contents were 58.1-61.5, 1.8-2.2, 24.3-27.6 and 12.0-12.5%, respectively. Yellow mealworms seem to be a promising source of protein for human consumption with the required fat and essential amino acids. Further research into raising them on a variety of low quality substances/wastes such as saw dust, waste paper, corn starch and potato flour is recommended. Conclusion/Recommendations: The future research should also investigate the nutrition content of the medium (minerals, protein, fat, carbohydrates and vitamins) and the effect of environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, production of CO2 and heat) on protein yield and quality. This information will aid in the design of an economically viable large scale production system.
  A.E. Ghaly and F.N. Alkoaik
  Problem statement: MSW has traditionally been dealt with thorough the practice of land filling and incineration. However, deleterious environmental impacts have promoted municipalities in Canada to recycle non-putrescible wastes and compost the putrescible ones. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of MSW compost on the growth and production of three vegetable crops (potatoes, corn and squash). Approach: Each crop received 5 treatments: MSW1, MSW2, MSW3, NPK and 0.5 NPK, 0.5 MSW1. MSW2 and MSW3 were twice and three times MSW1, respectively. MSW1 was determined for corn and potato based on phosphorous requirements by these crops and the phosphorous content of the MSW compost and was determined for squash based on the nitrogen requirement by the plant and the nitrogen content of the MSW compost. The choice of chemical fertilizer and application rate were based on the optimum NPK ratio for each plant. Samples from the plants were taken at specific growth stages and at harvest for visual health and dry matter analyses. Results: The plant yield for each crop followed the same patterns as those of the visual observations for health ranking and the dry matter. The results showed that 0.5 NPK + 0.5 MSW1 gave the best plant growth, health and yield for potato and corn while NPK gave the best plant growth, heath and yield for squash. Squash did not seem to respond well to MSW compost. Conclusion: The plots that received MSW2 were healthier than those reserved MSW1 and MSW3. High rate of MSW may provide higher level of heavy metals than the plant can tolerate while low rate of MSW may not contain all the other required micro-nutrients. Long tern effects of MSW compost on the chemical and microbiological properties of the soil and the plant properties such as taste, appearance, storability, susceptibility to bugs and disease should be evaluated.
  S.A. Al-Suhaibani and A.E. Ghaly
  Problem statement: Tillage is a process of creating a desirable soil condition for seed germination and growth. The tillage of soil is considered to be one of the biggest farm operations as the tillage operation requires the most energy on the farm. Chisel plow is widely used by farmers as a primary tillage tool. Performance data for chisel plow operation is essential in order to reduce the cost of tillage operation. Approach: Field experiments were conducted using a fully instrumented MS 3090 tractor to measure the draft of a heavy duty chisel plow in a sandy soil over wide ranges of plowing depths and forward speeds. The data were measured and recorded using an instrumentation system and data logger. Results: The effects of plowing depth and forward speeds on draft, unit draft, vertical specific draft, horizontal specific draft and coefficient of pull were evaluated. The results indicated that increasing the plowing depth and/or the forward speed increased the draft, unit draft and vertical specific draft. Also, increasing the plowing depth increased the horizontal specific draft and the coefficient of pull, while increasing the forward speed decreased the horizontal specific draft and the coefficient of pull. Conclusion: About 16.6% of the draft force was directed towards cutting the soil and 83.4% was consumed in pulverization of soil particles. The values of the vertical specific draft were much higher than those of the horizontal specific draft for all plowing depths and forward speeds. The plowing depth had more pronounced effect on the draft, unit draft, specific draft and coefficient of pull than the forward speed. The optimum forward speed was 1.75 m sec-1. The recommended plowing depth should be based on the type of crop (depth of the root system).
  M.S. Brooks , N.H. Abou El-Hana and A.E. Ghaly
  The drying behavior of plum tomatoes as affected by drying temperature and tomato pieces geometry was investigated. The tomato was cut into halves, quarters and eighths and dried at temperatures of 55 and 65°C. During drying, the moisture content followed an exponential decay curve with R2>0.98. The time required to achieve the critical moisture content for storage (15%) for the tomato halves, quarters and eights were 36, 26 and 20 h and 23, 18 and 13 h, at the temperatures of 55 and 65°C, respectively. The rate of drying also followed exponential decay and was unaffected by the temperature and tomato piece geometries. The specific drying rate was dependent on the drying temperature and was not affected by geometry. The total surface area appeared to have a significant effect on the specific moisture loss than the cut surface area. Cutting the tomato samples into smaller pieces and drying at lower temperatures is recommended to reduce the drying time and maintain quality.
  A.E. Ghaly , D.G. Rushton and N.S. Mahmoud
  Experiments were performed, using eighteen 280 cm deep soil columns with 20 cm inside diameter, to determine the relative amounts of nitrogenous compounds leached and volatilized from soils receiving high application rates of cheese whey during two seasons. Three soils (loamy sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam) and two cheese whey application rates (560 and 840 kg-N haˉ1), that provided twice and three times the nitrogen requirement for corn crop, were investigated. The leaching and volatilization processes were monitored over a period of five months each season. The concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in the leachates obtained from three soils decreased with time and the soil type and whey application rate did not have any significant effect on the soil removal efficiency of these compounds. However, higher concentrations were observed in the second season of application. The decline in the ammonium nitrogen concentrations in the absence of plants and the initial increase in the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations indicated that the nitrification process had taken place. The organic nitrogen losses in the leachates were 3.02-4.14 kg hˉ1 (0.54-0.74 % of the initial total nitrogen). The total inorganic (NH4, NO2, NO3) nitrogen losses in the leachates were 59-76 mg which is higher than the initial concentration of 55 mg indicating that the mineralization process had taken place. Volatilization of NH3 was independent of soil type and whey application rate. About 3.41 gˉ1haˉ1 (0.59 % of the initial total nitrogen) of nitrogen was lost to the atmosphere through volatilization Nitrite and nitrate are highly soluble and easily leach out of soil solution. Therefore, continuous application of cheese whey at higher rates may result in ground water contamination and eventually becomes a threat to human and animal health.
  A.E. Ghaly and F.N. Alkoaik
  Problem statement: The maize stalk borer and American bollworm were grown in an artificial media to evaluate their potential as human food sources. Approach: Both cultures were started from moths and the life cycle and culture structures were evaluated. Results: The larvae of both insects reached maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. The growth rate of the youngest larvae was found to be the highest and the increase in the body weight during the growth period appeared to be linear. The larvae of these insects started to decrease in weight after they reached the maximum size. For efficient systems for the commercial production of the maize stalk borer and the American bollworm, the larvae should be harvested when they are 39 and 21 days old, respectively. The protein contents were 38.0 and 33.0% and the fat contents were 14.5 and 14.4% for the dried larvae of the American bollworm and maize stalk borer, respectively. The larvae of both insects contained the essential amino acids and minerals. Only 10% mortality was observed with older larvae of both species. A system where eggs are separated from adults and hatched in separate chambers would alleviate the possible danger of losing the population due to microbial infection. The high moisture content of the larvae (60.4-61.0%) could cause handling and storage problems. Drying and grinding the larvae would reduce them to easily manageable forms and would improve their marketability as novel food. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study show the potential of using insects as a protein source for human consumption to alleviate protein deficiency in many parts of the world, especially in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Further research is required to evaluate their growth characteristics on low substrates. Future research should also evaluate environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and heat and CO2 production on food consumption and protein yield per gram substrate. This information will aid in the design of optimal production systems.
  S.A. Al-Suhaibani , A. Al-Janobi and A.E. Ghaly
  Problem statement: Tillage is a process of creating a desirable soil condition for seed germination and growth. The tillage of soil is considered to be one of the biggest farm operations as the tillage operation requires the most energy on the farm. Chisel plow is widely used by farmers as a primary tillage tool. Performance data for chisel plow operation is essential in order to reduce the cost of tillage operation. Approach: Field experiments were conducted using a fully instrumented MS 3090 tractor to measure the draft of a super heavy chisel plow in a sandy soil over wide ranges of plowing depths and forward speeds. The data were measured and recorded using an instrumentation system and data logger. Results: The effects of plowing depth and forward speeds on draft, unit draft, vertical specific draft, horizontal specific draft and coefficient of pull were evaluated. The results indicated that increasing the plowing depth and/or the forward speed increased the draft, unit draft and vertical specific draft. Also, increasing the plowing depth increased the horizontal specific draft and the coefficient of pull, while increasing the forward speed decreased the horizontal specific draft and the coefficient of pull. Conclusion: About 21.8% of the draft force was directed towards cutting the soil and 78.2% was consumed in pulverization of soil particles. The values of the vertical specific draft were much higher than those of the horizontal specific draft for all plowing depths and forward speeds. The plowing depth had more pronounced effect on the draft, unit draft, specific draft and coefficient of pull than the forward speed. The optimum forward speed was 1.75 m sec-1. The recommended plowing depth should be based on the type of crop (depth of the root system).
  N.S. Mahmoud , A.E. Ghaly and F. Arab
  Chitin is a versatile environmentally friendly modern material. It has a wide range of applications in areas such as water treatment, pulp and paper, biomedical devices and therapies, cosmetics, membrane technology and biotechnology and food applications. Crustacean waste is the most important chitin source for commercial use. Demineralization is an important step in the chitin purification process from crustacean waste. The conventional method of demineralization includes the use of strong acid (commonly HCl) that harms the physiochemical properties of chitin, results in a harmful effluent wastewater and increases the cost of chitin purification process. The current study proposes the use of organic acids (lactic and acetic) produced by cheese whey fermentation to demineralize microbially deproteinized shrimp shells. The effects of acid type, demineralization condition, retention time and shells to acid ratio were investigated. The study showed that the effectiveness of using lactic and/or acetic acids for demineralization of shrimp shells was comparable to that of using hydrochloric acid. Using organic acids for demineralization is a promising concept, since organic acids are less harmful to the environment, can preserve the characteristics of the purified chitin and can be produced from low cost biomass such as cheese whey. In addition, the resulted organic salts from the demineralization process can be used as a food preservative and/or an environmentally friendly de-icing/anti-icing agents.
  A. S. Mahmoud , A.E. Ghaly and S.L. Brooks
  Most of the textile dye removal techniques operate within temperature and pH ranges of 20-60 °C and 2-12, respectively. Both the pH and temperature have been reported to have significant effects on the efficiencies of the dye removal techniques. In this study, the effects of pH and temperature on the stability and color measurement (absorbance) of the textile dye remazol brilliant at different dye concentrations were investigated. Changing the pH from 1 to 13 and /or the temperature from 15 to 55 °C did not have any significant effect on the absorbance of the dye remazol brilliant blue at two concentrations (65 and 300 mg L-1). The results showed the stability of the remazol brilliant blue in water under wide ranges of temperature and pH. However, the neutral compound C22H16N2Na2O11S3 is transformed to an ionic form with either negative charge [C22H15N2Na2O11S3]under alkaline condition or positive charge [C22H15N2Na2O11S3] + under acidic condition. The formation of ionic form of the dye will facilitate its removal by various removal techniques. The results showed that a standard curve can be constructed at ambient conditions (a pH of 7 and a temperature of 25 °C) and used to determine the concentration of the dye using the colorimetric method.
  T. J. Burdock , A. H. Giffin , M.S. Brooks and A.E. Ghaly
  Jadomycins are novel antibiotics that exhibit biological activity against bacteria and yeast and also demonstrate cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Jadomycin C was successfully produced from 10 L of fermentation media in a 19 L bioreactor using Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 which was shocked with ethanol. The bioreactor temperature and pH were successfully maintained at 30°C and 7, respectively. The heat of mixing from the agitator was 4.9 J·s-1. The heat of metabolism was 4.4 J·s-1 and the heat provided by the water circulator was 6.2 J·s-1 during the fermentation. A substantial portion of heat (26.45%) was lost with the exhaust air leaving the bioreactor, while 69.03% was lost through the walls and 1.94% and 2.85% were lost through the top and bottom of the bioreactor. Once the bioreactor was inoculated, there was no lag period evident and a specific growth rate of 0.23 h-1 was achieved. The rate of jadomycin production initially increased rapidly and reached a maximum level within 15 hours after the ethanol shock. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during the experiment was inversely related to the growth of the bacteria.
  A.E. Ghaly , A. Snow and M. Kamal
  The aim of this study was to assess the kinetics of Fe removal by broad-leaved cattail, soft stem bulrush, soft rush and wool grass plants from contaminated wastewater under laboratory conditions. The approach used was based on a first order kinetic model which allowed for the evaluation of the specific metal uptake rate and the maximum accumulation of the metal in each plant species. The results showed that the model is capable of predicting the experimental data with relatively high confidence (R2 = 0.98). The specific Fe uptake rate and the maximum amount of Fe that can accumulate in each plant species were affected by the initial Fe concentration in the wastewater and the plant species. As the initial concentration of Fe in the water increased, the specific Fe uptake rate of each species decreased with the exception of broad-leaved cattail. Soft stem bulrush displayed the highest specific Fe uptake rates followed by soft rush, cattail and wool grass. The maximum amount of Fe that accumulated in each species also increased as the initial Fe concentration in the wastewater increased. The results showed that soft stem bulrush plants would accumulate the highest amount of Fe in their tissues followed by broad-leaved cattail, wool grass and soft rush.
  A.E. Ghaly and J.P. Singh
  In this study, the effectiveness of two conventional UV reactors in series for the online sterilization of cheese whey was compared to that of a single conventional reactor. The single reactor and the two reactor series were tested at eleven flow rates (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60 and 70 mL min-1) and five flow rates, (35, 40, 50, 60, 70 mL min-1), respectively. 100% destruction efficiency could not be achieved in the single reactor. When two reactors were connected in series, the destruction efficiency reached 100% at the flow rate of 35 mL min-1 and lasted for 25 min. The temperature of the effluent decreased with the increase in flow rate in both systems. The rate of microbial destruction in the single reactor and the two reactor series was described by an exponential equation. The maximum effluent temperatures in the single reactor and the two reactor series were 45.8 and 36.0°C, respectively. The flow in both reactors was laminar (Re=1.39 at 5mL min-1 and Re= 20.10 at 70 mL min-1). Visual observation revealed less fouling on the UV lamps of two reactor series than the single reactor. A different design in which there is no contact between the liquid and the UV lamp should be investigated. The quartz sleeve could also be replaced with fluropolymer coiled tube around the UV lamp. The smooth surface of the fluropolymer would reduce scaling and extend the effective operating time.
  A.E. Ghaly
  Problem statement: The black cutworms (Agrotis ipsilon) were grown in an artificial medium to evaluate their potential as a human food. Approach: The culture was started from moths and the life cycle and culture structure were evaluated. There was an initial adjustment period of 3 days during which the growth of the larvae was very slow. The size of the larvae increased reaching maximum weight and length after 23 days and then declined as the larvae entered the pupation stage. For an efficient production system, the larvae should be harvested after 21 days. The moisture content of the medium may present an important management problem for commercial production. Results: A system in which the eggs are separated from the adults and hatched in separate cages would alleviate the danger of losing the new larvae due to fungal disease. The high moisture content of the larvae (60%) could also cause handling and storage problems. Drying and grinding the larvae would reduce them to easily manageable forms and would improve their marketability as novel food. The moisture, ash, carbohydrate, protein and fat contents were, 13.4, 12.1, 7.5, 53.1 and 13.9% (dry basis), respectively. The larval time index (time to produced one gram) was 3.20 d g-1 weight. Considering the fact that a female moth produces 1200 eggs, the population time index is 3.90 min g-1 weight. Because the larvae seem to be a promising source of protein for human consumption, further research is required to evaluate their growth characteristics on low substrates. Conclusion: The research should also evaluate the quality of larval protein (amino acid profile) and other nutritional values such as vitamins and minerals. The effects of environmental parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity and CO2 and heat production on food consumption and protein yield, should also be investigated. This information will aid in the design of an optimal production system of insect protein.
  M. Verma and A.E. Ghaly
  Advanced oxidation processes involving TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV were evaluated for their potential use in decolorization of textile dye effluents. A coil photo reactor, consisting of UV radiation source and a spiral coil coated with TiO2, was used to treat synthetic effluent of Remazol Brilliant Blue dye. The TiO2 coating was performed using the sol-gel technique. The effects of UV radiation, TiO2 coatings and dye concentration were studied and the results were compared to dye treatment involving H2O2. The maximum dye removal efficiencies were 7.3, 12.2 and 12.5% for uncoated, single coat and dual coat of TiO2, respectively. The decolorization efficiency was inversely related to dye concentration of the effluent. The treatments with UV only, TiO2 only, UV+TiO2, H2O2 only and UV+H2O2 resulted in color reduction of 7.6, 2.3, 12.5, 4.1 and 99.9% respectively. The maximum decolorization occurred in ≤ 100 min in all cases. The temperature varied from 29.2-54.7°C for UV+TiO2 treatment and no change in reactor temperature was observed when UV was not used.
  S.A. Al-Suhaibani and A.E. Ghaly
  Problem statement: Tillage is a process of creating a desirable soil condition for seed germination and growth. The tillage of soil is considered to be one of the biggest farm operations as the tillage operation requires the most energy on the farm. Manufacturers of tillage implements tend to overdesign their products due to a lack of the proper testing and analysis of tillage tools and the technical expertise required to optimize the farm operations. Chisel plow is widely used by farmers as a primary tillage tool. Performance data for chisel plow operation is essential in order to optimize its performance and reduce the cost of tillage operation. Approach: Field experiments were conducted using a fully instrumented MS 3090 tractor to evaluate the performance of a heavy duty chisel plow in a sandy soil over wide ranges of plowing depths and forward speeds. The plowing depth, forward speed and draft were measured and recorded using an instrumentation system and data logger. Results: The effects of plowing depth and forward speeds on draft, unit draft, vertical specific draft, horizontal specific draft and coefficient of pull were evaluated. The results indicated that increasing the plowing depth and/or the forward speed increased the draft, unit draft and vertical specific draft. Also, increasing the plowing depth increased the horizontal specific draft and the coefficient of pull, while increasing the forward speed decreased the horizontal specific draft and the coefficient of pull. Conclusion: About 26.7% of the draft force was directed towards cutting the soil and 73.3% was consumed in pulverization of soil particles. The values of the vertical specific draft were much higher than those of the horizontal specific draft for all plowing depths and forward speeds. The plowing depth had more pronounced effect on the draft, unit draft, specific draft and coefficient of pull than the forward speed. The optimum forward speed was 1.75 m sec-1. The recommended plowing depth should be based on the type of crop (depth of the root system).
  A.E. Ghaly and F. Alkoaik
  Three laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the influence of bioavailable carbon addition on the composting process of tomato remains. Sugar, cheese whey and used cooking oil were used as bioavailable carbon sources. The amounts of materials added to the compost mixture had equal energy contents. The initial moisture contents and C: N ratios of the compost mixtures were maintained at 60 % and 30: 1, respectively. The average bioreactor temperature was strongly influenced by the type of bioavailable carbon. The maximum bioreactor temperature was 50.8, 56.9, 63.4 and 63.3 ºC for the control and the mixtures receiving sugar, cheese whey and used cooking oil, respectively. Strong correlations were observed between the maximum temperature achieved (and its duration) and the reductions in fat and volatile solids contents. The total fat reductions were in the range of 64.6-88.8 %, whereas the total carbohydrates reductions were in the range of 21.5-31.7 %. Reductions of 12.4-25.3 % and 3.5-17.7 % were also achieved in protein content and TKN. Neither the nitrogen nor the moisture contents were limiting factors. The ammonium nitrogen remained unchanged at 0.33-0.35 % and the moisture content remained at 59.7 ±0.61 %.
  A.E. Ghaly , M.A. Kamal and R. Cote
  The ability of limestone and limestone/sandstone filters to remove dissolved iron and manganese from landfill leachate under field conditions were investigated. The results showed that the precipitation of iron and manganese were affected by temperature and time. Most of iron was removed from solution within the first 10 min at 20oC while the removal of iron from solution took much longer time (50 min) at 5oC. Larger percentage (69%) of manganese was removed from solution within the first 20 min at 20oC compared to that (42%) removed at 5oC. Removal of manganese from solution was affected by the presence of iron while presence of manganese did not affect iron removal from solution. The lower removal efficiencies of manganese showed the slow kinetic of manganese oxidation. The iron and manganese removal rate constants of the limestone filters were higher than those of the limestone/sandstone filters. The pH of the water samples did not exceed 7.7. Therefore, the wetland ecosystem should be able to adjust to water having a slight alkalinity without suffering adverse effects.
  A.E. Ghaly , A. Snow and B.E. Faber
  The treatment of grease filter washwater by chemical coagulation and sedimentation using different dosages of aluminum sulfate was investigated. Pollutant removal efficiency was measured in terms of total solids, pH and optical density. The process was found to be effective at the room temperature and the filter washwater pH (9.5). The optimum aluminum sulfate dosage was 2 g/L. The treatment reduced the total solids of the wastewater by 89.6%, and produced a supernatant with a pH of 4.15 and an optical density of 0.194 nm. A fully automated prototype was then constructed for the treatment of grease filter washwater. Three distinct layers were formed in the system (fat, liquid and sludge) and each was removed separately. The system successfully recovered over 80% recyclable water with a quality comparable to that of tap water. The combined mixture of sludge and fat (20%) contained high levels of heavy metals and was not suitable for bioconversion into value added product. However, dewatering the sludge using vacuum filtration reduced its volume to 0.8% of the original volume of washwater. As a result, about 99.2% of the washwater (treated water) is recycled in the washing operation.
  A. S. Mahmoud , A.E. Ghaly and M.S. Brooks
  The effectiveness of five plant oils (cottonseed, olive, canola sunflower and used cooking oil) for the removal of dye from textile wastewater was evaluated. The study revealed that the dye removal efficiency increased as the temperature was increased. Under low pH, both the oil and dye split into two components each. Neither one of the oil components joined with either one of the dye components. However, the observed reduction in the absorbance under acidic conditions can be attributed to the dye components losing some of their original color or producing different colors that were not effectively measured at 475 nm. When the dye solution was shaken with the oil under alkaline conditions, it formed a colloidal solution containing the oil plus the dye, resulting in a significant dye removal from solution. The results also showed that the optimum conditions for the dye removal for various oils were at a pH of 13 and a temperature of 55 °C, except for canola oil that produced the highest dye removal efficiency at pH of 7. The used cooking oil achieved the highest dye removal efficiency (95.45%) followed by olive oil (87.00%). The other oils (cottonseed, canola and sunflower achieved dye removal efficiencies below 58% and are, therefore, not recommended for dye removal.
  A.E. Ghaly , D.G. Rushton and K. Martinell
  The effectiveness of in-vessel bioremediation in reducing the concentration of toluene in contaminated soil under continuous and intermittent mixing conditions using invessel composting system. The results showed that there was a startup period (60 h) during which the average temperature rose from 21 to 32 and 40°C (and then remained constant) for the bioreactors with continuous and intermittent mixing, respectively. The increase in the temperature demonstrated the conversion of the complex organic carbon into H2O, CO2 and energy during mineralization (cell respiration process) of carbon. The lower temperature of the bioreactor with continuous mixing (8-9°C) mixing during the steady state period indicating that more heat was lost with exhaust gas from this bioreactor. Little changes were observed in the moisture contents of the mixture. Most of the moisture losses were through the exhaust gas. The analysis of the exhaust gas samples did not show identifiable toluene peaks but some unidentifiable peaks were present. By day 15, about 96.35 and 89.07 % of the initial toluene were removed by the bioreactors with intermittent and continuous mixing, respectively. These results indicate that in addition to reducing the energy requirement by 50 %, the bioreactor with intermittent mixing also reduces the time required for complete degradation. This method of bioremediation is very effective in removing toluene but the production of toluene derivatives during the biodegradation process should be investigated.
  A.M. Snow and A.E. Ghaly
  Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received wastewater from an aquaculture system stocked with Arctic charr. During the experiment, the crops grew rapidly and fairly uniformly and showed no signs of mineral deficiency or disease. The average crop height at harvest was 25.5 cm and the yield varied from 25 to 59 t ha¯1, depending on the seed density. The hydroponically grown barley was able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N, and PO43--P reductions ranged from 52.7 to 60.5%, from 72.9 to 83.1%, from 76.0 to 76.0%, from 97.6 to 99.2%, from 76.9 to 81.6% and from 87.1 to 95.1%, respectively. However, the effluent produced from the hydroponics system had slightly higher levels of TS (420-485 mg L¯1) than the 480 mg L¯1 recommended for aquatic animals. A sedimentation/filtration unit should be added to the hydroponics system.
  A.E. Ghaly and M. Verma
  A flushing process followed by a zeolite based ion-exchange process were developed for the treatment of saline sludges from oil and gas exploration sites. The particle size distribution of sludge sample indicated the presence of very fine sand and clay. The electrical conductivity of the sludge was 42.2 dS m-1 indicating very saline sludge and the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was 40 cmoL kg-1 which was very suitable for ion-exchange process. A 500 g sample of saline sludge (containing CaCl2:MgCl2:NaCl ratio as 1:1.16:36.61) was washed using demineralized water in a mixed reactor and the sludge was allowed to settle for 36 h. The optimal number of washes was determined to be two washes with an overall salt removal efficiency of 94.47%. The treated sludge contained 515 mg salt kg-1 sludge (or 0.05% w w-1) and was suitable for agricultural application. The washwater was passed through a Mountain Stronach zeolite (chabazite) based ion-exchange column for salt reduction. The sodium salt removal efficiency was 75.34%. This was increased to 99.79% when using two ion-exchange columns. The Ca and Mg ions were under regulatory limits and required no further treatment. The final salt concentration in the wash water was 314.0 mg L-1 which was below the limits established by the Canadian Guidelines. For complete removal of total salts, a series of ion-exchange columns with different zeolites (for removal of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2) will be required.
 
 
 
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