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Articles by A.Q. Sazili
Total Records ( 20 ) for A.Q. Sazili
  E. Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili , H. Yaakub and M. Hilmi
  Problem statement: Supplementation of broiler diets with cristalline amino acids (i.e. lysine, ethionine and threonine) may support equal broiler growth and improve overall amino acids balance and enable a reduction in CP level of diets. Approach: A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental L-leucine in diets containing recommended levels and low crude protein (20 and 18%, respectively) with constant metabolizable energy (3200 kcal kg-1) for broilers from 21-42 day of age. Six experimental diets were formulated with three levels of supplemental L-leucine, 0, 0.5 and 0.67% and two levels of crude protein. A total of 180 1 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were randomly divided into 36 experimental pens, 5 chickens in each pen, with each diet replicated 6 times. The dietary treatments were offered from 21-42 days of age. Feed intake, body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were measured on a weekly basis. At the end of the feeding trial the birds were slaughtered and carcass analyses conducted. Results: Feed intake, weight gain and FCR were not affected by increasing levels of L-leucine supplementation. Weight gain was significantly reduced (p<0.05), whereas feed intake and FCR were not significantly affected with decreasing dietary crude protein. A positive response in breast meat yield was achieved by the addition of L-leucine to levels up to 0.5% in the diet but a significant decrease was noted when the level reached 0.67% in diet. Supplementation of L-leucine significantly (p<0.05) decreased the relative weights of the liver and gizzard. However, the addition of L-leucine significantly reduced carcass weights when L-leucine was added at 0.67%. Lowering the dietary protein level also significantly reduced breast yield and carcass weight (p<0.05). However, abdominal fat, gizzard, liver and heart were not affected by protein level. Conclusion/Recommendations: It can be concluded that supplementation of L-leucine at levels up to 0.67% of the diet did not affect performance but deleteratious the carcass weight.
  K. Abuelfatah , A.B.Z. Zuki , Y.M. Goh and A.Q. Sazili
  Recently, feeding animals with dietary essential fatty acids have become of interest in animal nutrition. This is mainly to enrich their content in animal products in order to improve consumer health. Most of these studies have been focused in sheep and cattle while goats received a little attention. This study was conducted to assess effects of feeding different levels of linseed as a source of n-3 fatty acid on goat’s growth performance, apparent digestibility and carcass characteristics. Twenty-four 5-month old crossbred Boer bucks were divided into three groups (n = 8) and assigned into three treatment diets differed in level of linseed for 110 days. The diets were L0, L10 or L20 contained 0% (control), 10 and 20% (w/w) linseed, respectively. In the last 14 days of the trial, four animals from each group were placed in metabolic crates for collection of feces. At the end of the trial all goats were slaughtered. The results showed that the final weight, total weight gain and apparent digestibility were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05). Goats fed L20 diet had lower (p<0.05) feed intake (669.30 g day-1) compared to L0 (705.21 g day-1) or L10 (698.51 g day-1). The gain: Feed ratio was higher (p<0.05) in L20 compared to other treatments. The internal fat weight was heavier (p<0.05) in L20 (550.57 g) compared to L10 (373.00 g), while in L0 was (469.40 g) without significant difference from both. The percentage of lean was better (p<0.05) in L10 (67.82) compared to L0 (65.25) or L20 (64.78). It is concluded that linseed can be included to goat diets up to 20% (w/w), without adverse effects on growth and carcass quality of goat. Feeding goat 20% linseed can increase feed efficiency while 10% can improve goat carcass traits.
  A.Q. Sazili , M.Z. Noor Azihan , M. Shuhaimi , M. Hilmi and J.M. Panandam
  The present study was conducted in an attempt to study the effects of the type, pH and molarity of extraction buffer on protein extractability from beef Longissimus dorsi (LD), Supraspinatus (SS) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. All muscle samples were dissected out from carcass immediately after slaughter and subjected to extractions using freshly prepared buffers of different buffer type (Tris Base and Tris HCl), pH (8.3 and 7.5) and molarity (100 and 20 mM). Following extraction, the total extractable protein concentration was determined by Bradford assay. The results exhibited significant (p<0.05) effects of muscle type X buffer interaction on extracted total protein concentration. The statistical analysis also revealed interaction between type of buffer, pH and molarity significantly (p<0.01), affected the extracted protein concentration. Based on the results, optimal buffer suggested to use for muscle protein extraction is Tris-Base with pH 8.3 and 100 mM. The present study demonstrated that the extractability of skeletal muscle protein was significantly influenced by the type, molarities and pH of the extraction buffers used.
  E Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and H. Yaakub
  The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of excess leucine, in broiler diets containing varying levels of energy. In a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, the effects of leucine levels and dietary energy on performance and carcass characteristics of Cobb broiler chickens from 3 to 6 weeks of age were tested. Dietary treatments consisted of two levels of leucine i.e. 0 and 0.5% with two of metabolizable energy (ME) i.e. 3200 and 3000 kcal/kg, respectively. Reducing dietary energy decreased weight gain up to 7.4% (P<0.05). Decreasing dietary energy had no significant effect on feed consumption and feed to gain ratio and carcass characteristics. Increasing dietary leucine had no significant effect on feed consumption, weight gain and feed to gain ratio and carcass characteristics, but significantly increased carcass weight up to 9% (P<0.05). Dietary treatments had no significantly effect on mortality. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of excess leucine in diets with reduced levels of crude protein.
  I.H. Lokman , Hasan S.A. Jawad , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , M.M. Noordin and A.B.Z. Zuki
  In most animals, myofibers number gets established before birth and postnatal growth is due to muscle hypertrophy, with very little contribution from muscle hyperplasia. The muscle myofibers exhibit different contractile, metabolic, physiological, chemical and morphological characteristics but the interaction between these factors and their outcome is not fully understood. Since, there is lack of literature regarding the skeletal muscle morphology of Red jungle fowl (RJ) and Malaysian village chicken (VC), therefore, the present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the morphology of skeletal muscle of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus Spadiceus) and Malaysian Village Chicken (Gallus gallus Domesticus) and commercial broiler chicken. A total of 150 unsexed birds consisting of 50 Red jungle fowl (RJ), 50 Malaysian village chicken (VC) and 50 commercial broiler (CB) were used in this study. Pectoralis major and bicep femoris were analyzed at the age of 1, 10, 20, 56 and 120 days post hatch. The number of muscle fibers in the breast and thigh muscles increased as the age advanced and the slow growing birds (RJ and VC) had higher Type I muscle fibers in breast and thigh muscles than fast growing CB. The percentage of Type 1 muscle fibers increased as the age advanced due to prolonged activity and also the type of muscle fibers changed throughout the age and activity. The importance of muscle fiber type changes is applicable to determine the future production of birds especially with regard to better quality meat of VC and RJ.
  M. Karami , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and Y.M. Goh
  This study investigated the effect of different antioxidants of dietary supplementation with Andrographis paniculata, turmeric and α-tocopherol on lipid and color stability of Infraspinatous (IS) kacang crossbred goat kids muscle. Total 4 treatments of 8 animals each were randomly selected, consisting of control (CN), 400 mg kg-1 Vitamin E (VE), 0.5% kg-1 DMI Turmeric (TU) and 0.5% kg-1 DMI Andrographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days feeding period, goats were slaughtered and infraspinatous muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and displayed for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller at 3-4°C. Percent of drip loss in the IS muscle were not significantly different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) with CN. Period of display did not affect (p>0.05) drip loss in IS muscle. Percent of cooking loss in the IS muscle were different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) and AP supplemented diet only decreased significantly (p<0.05) cooking loss with CN treatment. Increasing the aging time had not significant effects on percent cooking loss in the IS muscle. Warner-bratzler shear force was not affected by dietary supplementation antioxidants in IS muscle. However, increasing the aging time significantly (p<0.05) decreased Warner-bratzler shear force value or improved tenderness of IS muscle in kacang male goat kids. Supplementation of dietary antioxidant turmeric improved the IS muscle L* (lightness), a* value (redness), b* (yellowness) values, Chroma, Hue angle values and E enhanced significantly (p<0.05). Dietary antioxidants supplementation decreased TBARS value however, VE significantly (p<0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in IS muscle of kacang crossbred goat kid. TBARS value increased during the first seven days store in refrigerator but not significant (p>0.05). TBARS value high significantly increased in aging time at 14 days (p<0.01). Dietary antioxidants supplementation and sampling periods of blood plasma decreased (p<0.05). TBARS value of blood plasma of goats. In conclusion, feeding herbal antioxidants supplementation of male goat kids resulted in a general improvement of blood plasma and IS muscle oxidative stability as compared to feeding a control diet. Meat color deterioration, measured as changes of color descriptors aging (over) time was less pronounced in IS muscle from animals fed herbs (TU and AP) and VE diets than in IS muscle from CN fed goats.
  S. Navid , M. Hilmi , A.Q. Sazili and A. Sheikhlar
  A study was undertaken to improve meat quality of spent layer chicken through supplementing the old layer birds diet with vitamin D3, papaya leaf meal and pineapple skin meal a few days prior to slaughter. Forty spent layers were obtained to conduct this study after a period of laying for 80 weeks. About 4 diets which were fed to the chicken included diet 1: control diet (based on NRC recommendation level to meet or exceed the bird requirements at finisher stage), diet 2: control + (1x105) I.U. Vitamin D3, diet 3: control + 1% Pineapple Skin Meal (PSM) and diet 4: control + 1% Papaya Leaf Meal (PLM). Chicken were kept in an individual cage and fed for 7 days. At day 7, the chicks were scarified, breast muscle was taken for meat color, shear force, pH of the muscle, CP, fat, Ca, drip loss and cooking loss analysis. The results indicated that both vitamin D3 and papaya leaf meal were potent additives to improve tenderness, drip loss, cooking loss and meat color. However, Vitamin D3 appeared to be the most effective one in improving meat quality of spent layers.
  M. Karami , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and Y.M. Goh
  This study investigated the effect of different antioxidants of dietary supplementation with Andrographis paniculata, turmeric and α-tocopherol on lipid and color stability of Infraspinatous (IS) kacang crossbred goat kids muscle. Four treatments of eight animals each were randomly selected consisting of Control (CN), 400 mg kg-1 Vitamin E (VE), 0.5% kg-1 DMI Turmeric (TU) and 0.5% kg-1 DMI Andrographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days feeding period, goats were slaughtered and infraspinatous muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and displayed for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller at 3-4°C. Percent of drip loss in the IS muscle were not significantly different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) with CN. Period of display did not affect (p>0.05) drip loss in IS muscle. Percent of cooking loss in the IS muscle were different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) and AP supplemented diet only decreased significantly (p<0.05) cooking loss with CN treatment. Increasing the aging time had not significant effects on percent cooking loss in the IS muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not affected by dietary supplementation antioxidants in IS muscle. However, Increasing the aging time significantly (p<0.05) decreased Warner-Bratzler shear force value or improved tenderness of IS muscle in kacang male goat kids. Supplementation of dietary antioxidant turmeric improved the IS muscle L* (lightness), a* value (redness), b* (yellowness) values, Chroma, Hue angle values and E enhanced significantly (p<0.05). Dietary antioxidants supplementation decreased TBARS value however, VE significantly (p<0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in IS muscle of kacang crossbred goat kid. TBARS value increased during the first 7 days store in refrigerator but not significant (p>0.05). TBARS value high significantly increased in aging time at 14 days (p<0.01). Dietary antioxidants supplementation and sampling periods of blood plasma decreased (p<0.05) TBARS value of blood plasma of goats. In conclusion, feeding herbal antioxidants supplementation of male goat kids resulted in a general improvement of blood plasma and IS muscle oxidative stability as compared to feeding a control diet. Meat color deterioration, measured as changes of color descriptors aging (over) time was less pronounced in IS muscle from animals fed herbs (TU and AP) and VE diets than in IS muscle from CN-fed goats.
  M.B. Achenef , A.K. Arifah , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , O. Fauziah , Z.A. Zakaria , A. Zuraini and M.N. Somchit
  Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) are group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bonds and believed to have many health promoting effects. The present study focused on the quantitative analysis of CLAs in liver, Superficial Pectoral (SP), Longissimus Dorsi (LD) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles of local Malaysian Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Fatty acids were extracted using Folch method and determined by gas chromatography. The average content of CLAs in the liver, SP, LD and SM muscles were 38.71, 18.24, 11.03 and 13.04 mg/100 g of sample, respectively. The quantity of CLAs in the liver was significantly (p<0.05) higher than other samples. The percentages of cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 63.39, 76.04, 90.66 and 82.82% of total CLAs in the liver, SP, LD and SM muscles, respectively. Positive correlations between CLAs and trans-11-octadecenoic acid concentration were observed in all samples. This study confirmed that meat from KK cattle could be the potential source of CLA but still its content has to be improved to make their meat more beneficial for consumers.
  A.L. Tan , M. Ebrahimi , T. Hajjar , S. Vidyadaran , A.Q. Sazili , M.A. Rajion and Y.M. Goh
  This study was conducted to investigate the effects of modifying the n-6:n-3 Fatty Acid Ratio (FAR) of diets using fish oil, soybean oil and butter on growth performance and the fatty acid profile of rat fed with commercial concentrate diet. Fifty individually housed Sprague-Dawley rats (average of 130±2 g of body weight) were fed concentrates at 5% of body weight daily. The treatments consisted of dietary n-6:n-3 FAR of 1.94:1, 5.67:1, 51.82:1 and 61.69:1. After feeding for 20 weeks in individual cages, rats were sacrificed 15 h after feeding and samples of blood were collected. Increasing dietary saturated fatty acid increased the body weight significantly in compared to other treatment groups. Concentrations of n-6:n-3 FAR in plasma increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing dietary n-6:n-3 FAR. Concentrations of C18:3 n-3 decreased (p<0.001) in the diet with high level of soybean oil whereas that of C18:2n-6 did not change in all treatment groups (p>0.05) in rat plasma with different n-6:n-3 FAR. Proportions of oleic acid in plasma were unchanged by diet. The proportion of Arachidonic Acid (AA) decreased (p<0.05) in plasma of rat that fed with low level of n-6:n-3 FAR in compare to the diet with higher level. Proportions of all measured long chain n-3 fatty acids were greater in plasma when diets contained more C22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 from fish oil. By decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 FAR, the proportions of long chain n-3 fatty acids in plasma increased dramatically; specifically, 22:6 n-3 and 22:5 n-3.
  S. Navid , M. Hilmi , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and A. Sheikhlar
  Eighty spent chickens were employed in this study to assay the effect of combination of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf on antioxidant activity of meat in spent layer hens. Diets were a corn-soybean meal based diet for finisher layer with and without vitamin D3 which was supplemented with different levels of 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% for papaya leaf meal. Experiment lasted for 21 days. At day 0, 7, 14 and 21, the birds were scarified and breast muscle was obtained to determine antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Result obtained from this study demonstrated that antioxidant activity of meat showed remarkable improvement between dietary treatments fed mix of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf and control group. In conclusion, vitamin D3 and papaya leaf when combined indicated an improvement in antioxidant activity of the spent meat.
  I. Zulkifli , A. Al-Aqil and A.Q. Sazili
  An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of two types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on tonic immobility reaction, muscle glycogen content and serum creatine kinase activity in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On day 1, chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32°C on day 1 and gradually reduced to 23°C by day 21) (CH) or in conventional Open-sided Houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24°C; maximum, 34°C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either Ad libitum feeding (AL) or 60% Feed Restriction on day 4-6 (FR). On day 42, all the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had shorter TI duration and higher muscle glycogen content than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR shortened TI duration following transportation. Tonic immobility duration increased with duration of transportation while the converse was noted for muscle glycogen content. Serum creatine kinase was not affected throughout the period of study. Collectively, the results suggested that raising birds in OH dampened fear-related behavior and improved muscle glycogen content in response to road transportation under the hot and humid tropical climate.
  M.S. Salwani , A.Q. Sazili , I. Zulkifli , Z. Nizam and W. Zul Edham
  The study aimed to determine physico-chemical characteristics and myofibrillar proteolysis of breast muscles from broiler chickens subjected to head only electrical stunning. Pectoralis major muscles were collected from un-stunned (N = 25) and electrically stunned (N = 25) chickens at a commercial poultry processing plant. All samples were analysed for pH, color values, shear force, cooking loss and desmin degradation at 0, 4 and 24 h postmortem. The head only electrical stunning had significantly improved cooking loss and lightness (L*) of the pectoralis major muscles. Besides, there was a tendency for the stunning regime employed in this experiment to cause more rapid degradation of desmin over the 24 h postmortem storage.
  T.K. Leo , D.E. Leslie , S.S. Loo , M. Ebrahimi , Z.A. Aghwan , J.M. Panandam , A.R. Alimon , S.A. Karsani and A.Q. Sazili
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in growth performance and carcass characteristics of Bali cattle subjected to oil palm integration and two different feedlot finishing systems (basal vs. high energy). Eighteen, 24-30 months old male Bali cattle were involved in this study. The animals were randomly allotted into 3 feeding groups: Integration (INT), (n = 6 animals), Feedlot A (FA) with basal energy (n = 6 animals) and Feedlot B (FB) with high energy (n = 6 animals). The animals assigned to the integration system were allowed to graze on the native forages and legumes available under the oil palm plantation. The basal energy diet consisted of 5 kg Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) pellets + ad libitum corn stover and the high energy diet which consisted of 5 kg Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) pellets + ad libitum corn stover + 400 g calcium soap of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac®, Volac International Limited, UK) were fed to the animals in FA and FB, respectively. The feeding trial was conducted for 120 consecutive days excluding 3 weeks of adaptation period. The present data suggest that some of the growth parameters and carcass traits in Bali cattle can be enhanced through the feedlot finishing system.
  D.E. Leslie , T.K. Leo , S.S. Loo , Z.A. Aghwan , A.R. Alimon , J.M. Panandam , S.A. Karsani and A.Q. Sazili
  The study was carried out in an attempt to assess meat quality of Bali cattle finished in 3 different systems. Twenty one bulls were selected from an existing herd under an oil palm plantation and randomly assigned to 120 days of feeding in; Integration-INT (n = 8), basal energy Feedlot-F (n = 6) and high energy Feedlot-FB (n = 7) System. All animals were humanely slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Samples of Longissimus Dorsi (LD), Supra Spinatus (SS) and Semi Membranosus (SM) muscles were collected and prepared accordingly for the determinations of pH, cooking loss, shear force and color (L* and a*) values. The animals finished on Integration (INT) demonstrated higher L* values (p<0.05) in SS muscle and lower L* values (p<0.05) in both LD and SM muscles. Lower cooking losses (p<0.05) were observed in LD and SM muscles from the INT group. However, there was no difference in pH, a* (redness) and shear force values among the treatments and these were consistently shown in all three muscles. The results from this study demonstrate the influence of finishing system on Bali cattle meat quality.
  Z.A. Aghwan , A.Q. Sazili , A.R. Alimon , Y.M. Goh and M.A. Hilmi
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplementing inorganic Selenium (Se), Iodine (I) and combination of both on their concentrations in serum, skeletal muscle and organs of 24 local Kacang crossbred meat goats. Four dietary treatments of six goats each were randomly allotted to basal diet without supplementation (background only) as control (T1), basal diet + 0.6 mg Se kg-1 DM (T2), basal diet + 0.6 mg I kg-1 DM (T3) or basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se + 0.6 mg I kg-1 DM (T4) for 100 consecutive days. Serum samples were collected at days 0, 30, 60 and 95 for the determination of Se and I concentrations. Semitendinosus (ST) muscle, liver and kidney were also collected, vacuum packaged and stored frozen until assayed for the Se and I levels. The levels of I and Se in the serum of supplemented groups (T2, T3 and T4) were significantly higher compared to control (T1). In comparison with the control animals (T1) I and Se concentrations in the ST muscle, kidney and liver were also higher (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The results demonstrated the potential of Se and I dietary supplementation employed in this study to increase the concentrations of both elements in the serum, muscle, liver and kidney of goats.
  A.L. Yusuf , M. Ebrahimi , Y.M. Goh , A.A. Samsudin , A.B. Idris , A.R. Alimon and A.Q. Sazili
  The study was carried out to determine the effect of diets containing different parts of Andrographis paniculata on cumulative gas production, dry matter digestibility, methane and volatile fatty acids production in goats using in vitro gas production technique. The leaves, stems and roots of Andrographis paniculata (AP) were analysed for total polyphenols. Leaves of AP were found to contain the highest concentration of polyphenols; 3.08% Tannic Polyphenol (TP), 0.46% Hydrolysable Tannin (HT) and 0.19% Condensed Tannin (CT). The Non-Tannic Polyphenols (NTP) were estimated as 2.43% of the total polyphenols in the herb. Four diets were formulated three of which contained 1% each of the parts analysed (APL = leaves, APS = stems and APR = roots) and not containing Andrographis paniculata (APO) which was used as the control and tested for digestibility via in vitro gas production technique. The results indicated that VFAs, IVDMD, gas production and pH of the rumen fluid were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the experimental diets except for ammonia (p<0.05). The results suggest that goats can utilize nutrients from feeds containing AP without compromising the production of VFA and dry matter digestibility.
  M. Ebrahimi , M.A. Rajion , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , A.F. Soleimani and J.T. Schonewille
  Twenty four goats were allocated to three groups (n = 8) and fed either a control diet Without Oil Palm Fronds (CON), a diet incorporated with 25% Oil Palm Fronds (OPFM) or 50% Oil Palm Fronds (OPFH) for 100 days to evaluate their growth rates, carcass characteristics and subcutaneous fatty acid profiles. Animals in all three groups exhibited similar final body weights (p>0.05). The OPFH group showed a significant linear reduction (p<0.05) in dressing percentage, warm carcass weight and back fat thickness and total muscle when compared to the CON group. The total n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) concentrations in the subcutaneous fat of the OPFH animals were significantly higher (linear, p<0.05) than the CON group. The diet containing 25% of oil palm fronds did not produce any adverse effects on the growth performance and carcass characteristics. This demonstrates an environmental-friendly way of utilizing agricultural waste by products for the small ruminant industry in tropical countries growing oil palm tree.
  M.B. Achenef , A.K. Arifah , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , O. Fauziah , A. Zuraini , M.N. Somchit and Z.A. Zakaria
  This study was focused on the quantitative analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) in rumen liquor and assessment of the relationship between CLAs and other carbon 18 fatty acids and rumen pH of cattle slaughtered for meat consumption. The fatty acids were extracted using modified Folch method and determined by gas chromatography. The mean (n = 22) level of CLAs in the rumen liquor was 14.97 ±7.46 mg/100 mL. Cis-9, trans-11(c9, t11) was the dominant isomer of CLA followed by trans-10,cis-12 (t10, c12). The level of CLAs was positively correlated with the concentration of octadecatrienoic (18:3), cis-9, cis-12 octadecadienoic (18:2), trans-11octadecenoic (18:1) and octadecenoic (18:0) acids. Ruminal pH was positively correlated with the amount of c9, t11 and total CLA and negatively correlated with t10, c12 CLA isomer. All these correlations and relationships indicated that CLAs production in the rumen is dependent on availability of carbon 18 fatty acids and pH of the rumen liquor.
  E. Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili , H. Yaakub and R. Karim
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of leucine supplementation in grower-finisher diets containing varying levels of energy on the sensory characteristics and carcass composition of broiler chickens. In a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, eighty 21-day old Cobb broiler chicks were divided into 16 groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % L-leucine and metabolizable energy (ME) concentration at either 3200 kcal/kg or 3000 kcal/kg, for three weeks. Feed intake, growth performance and feed conversion ration were determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered, carcass composition determined and meat samples taken for sensory evaluation. There was no interaction between level of L-leucine and ME on the sensory characteristics and carcass composition at 42 days. Dietary level of L-leucine and ME had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the live-weight, breast meat, lean, bone, fat and skin. Similarly, the flavour, tenderness, aroma, juiciness and overall acceptability scores of breast meat of broiler fed diets supplemented with leucine were also not significantly different. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of excess leucine in diets with reduced levels of crude protein.
 
 
 
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