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Articles by Anil Vyas
Total Records ( 6 ) for Anil Vyas
  Nishi Mathur , Joginder Singh , Sachendra Bohra , Avinash Bohra and Anil Vyas
  The study was conducted to determine if pre-inoculation of transplants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviates salt effects on growth and yield of Parwal (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) when irrigated with saline water. Seeds of T. dioica were sown in polystyrene trays and treated with AM fungi (AM) or without (non-AM) Glomus deserticola. Once the seedlings had reached appropriate size, they were transplanted into nonsterile soil in concrete blocks under greenhouse conditions. The soil electrical conductivity (ECe) was 1.6 dS m-1. Plants were irrigated with nonsaline water (ECw=0.6 dS m-1) or saline water (ECw=2.6 dS m-1) until harvest. These treatments resulted in soil EC at harvest of 1.9 and 4.6 dS m-1 for nonsaline and saline water treatments, respectively. Root colonization with AM fungi at flowering was lower under saline than under nonsaline conditions. Pre-inoculated T. dioica plants with AM fungi irrigated with both saline and nonsaline water had greater shoot and root dry matter yield and fresh fruit yield than did non-AM plants. The enhancement in fresh fruit yield due to AM fungi inoculation was 25% under nonsaline and 48% under saline water conditions. Shoot contents of P, K, Zn, Cu, and Fe were higher in AM compared with non-AM plants grown under nonsaline and saline water conditions. Shoot Na concentrations were lower in AM than in non-AM plants grown under saline water conditions. Results indicate that pre-inoculation of T. dioica transplants with AM fungi improved yield and can help alleviate deleterious effects of salt stress on crop yield.
  Nishi Mathur and Anil Vyas
  The study of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the AM symbiosis formed with host plant roots is complicated by the biotrophic and hypogeous nature of the mycobionts involved. To overcome this, several attempts have been made during the last three decades to obtain this symbiosis in vitro. The use of root-organ cultures has proved particularly successful. In this review, we describe the method by which root-organ cultures (transformed and nontransformed) have been obtained, together with the choice of host species, inoculation techniques and culture media. This is supported by a summary of some of the most important findings, regarding this symbiosis, that have been made at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels.
  Nishi Mathur and Anil Vyas
  A field study was conducted to estimate the effect of salicylic acid (1, 2 and 3 mM), sitosterol as well as putrescine concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mM) on vegetative growth characters, yield and its components and grain biochemical constituents of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm) Stapf. and Hubb) at elongation and milky stages. The application of bioregulators led to significant increases of vegetative growth characters such as plant height, leaf area, leaf area index, dry weight/plant, specific leaf weight, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate except plant height, which significantly reduced with increasing salicylic acid concentration Increasing vegetative character values were obtained at salicylic acid (3 mM), sitosterol or putrescine (0.15 mM) at elongation and milky stages of pearl millet plantsyield and its components, i.e., ear length, ear diameter, grain yield/plant, grain yield/feddan, crop index and 100-grain weight of pearl millet were significantly increased at certain level of applied bioregulators application Salicylic acid (3 mM), sitosterol (0.15 mM) and putrescine (0.15 mM) gave the highest values of the previous yield components. Bioregulators varied of their effect on grain biochemical constituents of pearl millet plant. Sitosterol (0.15 mM) was more effective on crude protein and total carotenoids while putrescine (0.15 mM) was also more effective on total sugars and oil content of grains. Grain yield/feddan showed highly significant and positive correlation with the majority of growth parameters under sitosterol and putrescine application but not with salicylic acid treatments.
  Nishi Mathur , Joginder Singh , Sachendra Bohra , Avinash Bohra and Anil Vyas
  A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2004 and 2005 to study the effect of soil compaction, potassium and cobalt on growth and yield of moth bean. The results revealed that total number of nodules, number and weight of effective nodules, dry matter accumulation, pods per plant, test weight and seed yield of moth bean increased significantly with increasing levels of soil compaction, potassium and cobalt upto 4 passings of 500 kg iron roller, 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 500 ppm cobalt, respectively.
  Nishi Mathur , Joginder Singh Sachendra Bohra , Afshan Quaizi and Anil Vyas
  Phytoremediation as a means of cleaning up polluted soils has gained popularity during the last decade due to its convenience and low costs of installation and maintenance. When the target pollutant is biodegradable, this technology exploits the stimulating effect that roots have on microbial processes and physical/chemical modifications in the rhizosphere. Among the microorganisms that affect rhizosphere processes, symbiotic fungi forming mycorrhizas induce a series of changes in plant physiology, nutrient availability and microbial composition that may determine the outcome of a phytoremediation attempt. Beyond the rhizosphere, mycorrhizal hyphae act as the roots of the roots and may thus extend the rhizosphere into the bulk soil by creating a new interface of soil-plant interactions: the hyphosphere. Isolation of the indigenous and presumably stress-adapted AM fungi can be a potential biotechnological tool for inoculation of plants for successful restoration of degraded ecosystems. This review highlights the potential of AM fungi for enhancing phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. A great deal of research indicates that plants have the genetic potential to remove many toxic metals from the soil. Despite this potential, phytoremediation is yet to become a commercially available technology. Progress in the field is hindered by a lack of understanding of complex interactions in the rhizosphere and plant-based mechanism which allow metal translocation and accumulation in plant.
  Nishi Mathur , Joginder Singh , Sachendra Bohra , Avinash Bohra and Anil Vyas
  An experiment consisting of three levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 kg P2O5 ha-l) and six harvesting dates (starting from 20 days after flowering, at 5-day interval) was conducted at the field near Pal village, Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India) to assess their effects on yield and quality of moth bean. Application of 30 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-l increased the mean seed yield by 5.8 and 9.7% over no phosphorus application. Harvesting moth bean at 20 Days After Flowering (DAF) gave a mean yield of 449 kg ha-l. Seed yield progressively increased with delay in harvesting and was maximum when harvested at 40 DAF (705 kg ha-l). A further delay of 5 days in harvesting (i.e., at 45 DAF) resulted in mean yield loss of 14%. Application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-l resulted in higher split percentage (68.9%), more milling yield (82.5%), better husking efficiency (34.5%), higher head-dal yield (46.7%) and lower broken percentage (18.0%) as against 62.8, 78.9, 26.8, 37.2 and 22.0%, respectively, without the use of phosphorus. Better milling parameters were obtained when the crop was harvested at 30 DAF. Maximum crude protein was recorded when the crop was harvested at 35 DAF. Feeding trials on albino rats revealed that the pulse gave the maximum biological value of protein (47.05%) when the crop was harvested at 30 DAF with application of 60 kg P2O5. The biological value was lowest when phosphorus was not applied to the crop. Phosphorus application also resulted in increased value of net protein utilization. The study indicated that reasonable yield levels, milling parameters and protein quality could be obtained if the crop is harvested between 30 and 40 DAF.
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