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Articles by C. Lu
Total Records ( 9 ) for C. Lu
  S.D. Goodgame , F.J. Mussini , C. Lu , C.D. Bradley and P.W. Waldroup
  Recent work has indicated that phytase enzymes may influence Sodium (Na) metabolism in the chick but to date no work has conclusively demonstrated that the Na requirement of the chick for live performance is influenced by phytase supplementation. In this study male broilers were fed diets with Na levels ranging from 0.10-0.28% using sodium bicarbonate as the primary source of supplemental Na. Diets were supplemented with no phytase, 500 FTU/kg (1x) or 2,000 FTU/kg (4x) of phytase. When phytase was added the dietary Ca and Nonphytate P (NPP) were adjusted in accordance with anticipated release of these minerals. For 1x phytase the Ca and NPP were reduced 0.10% each and for 4x phytase were reduced by 0.20% each. The combination of seven Na levels and three phytase treatments resulted in 21 dietary treatments, each of which was fed to six replicate pens of five male chicks housed in electrically heated battery brooders with wire floors. Experimental diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum consumption from day of hatch to 18 d. At 16 d of age excreta from each pen was collected and freeze dried to determine moisture content and the excreta analyzed to determine amounts of Ca, P and Na. There were no significant differences in Body Weight (BW), Feed Conversion (FCR), Feed Intake (FI), fecal moisture (FH2O), or mortality of broilers fed diets with different levels of phytase indicating that the dietary adjustment in NPP and Ca levels for the addition of the phytase did not adversely affect performance of the birds. The dietary Na level significantly affected BW, FCR, FI or FH2O. There were no significant interactions of dietary Na and level of phytase supplementation. Regression analysis showed an overall estimate of 0.18±0.01% Na for BW and 0.19±0.01% Na for FCR. There was little indication that the Na requirement was affected by phytase. The level of phytase and Na in the diet had significant effects on excreta levels of P, Ca and Na. The use of lower dietary levels of NPP and Ca in association with the addition of the phytase resulted in significant reduction in excreta levels of these minerals, but had no significant effect on levels of excreted Na. Increasing the dietary Na level significantly affected the levels of all three minerals in the excreta. Although the dietary Na level had significant effects on both excreta P and Ca, these followed no consistent trends with no significant difference in Ca or P excretion between chicks fed diets with the lowest and highest Na levels. There were significant interactions between dietary Na levels and levels of phytase supplementation for all three minerals in the excreta. However, these did not appear to follow any consistent pattern. While it is apparent that phytase influences the metabolism of Na within the body, the data from the present study suggests that this has little impact on the dietary need for Na.
  S.D. Goodgame , F.J. Mussini , C. Lu , C.D. Bradley , S.E. Watkins and P.W. Waldroup
  After a seven day depletion period of vitamin D supplementation beginning on day of hatch, male chicks of a commercial broiler strain were placed on diets supplemented with either a commercial source of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) or a new source derived from fermentation. Levels of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/kg of each source were added to a common basal diet that was considered as marginal in calcium and phosphorus content. Each diet was fed to six pens of five birds each. Birds were then grown to 21 d of age at which time body weight and feed consumption were determined. All birds were euthanized by CO2 inhalation and all toes were removed and ashed. The right tibia was subjected to bone ash determination while the left tibia was subjected to break force analysis. Analysis of the data indicated no significant differences in performance between chicks fed the two sources of 25-OH-D3 (p<0.05) although numerical differences in weight gain and feed conversion were observed that neared statistical significance (p = 0.06 and 0.08, respectively). Estimates of the amount of 25-OH-D3 needed by the bird were approximately 10 μg/kg for tibia ash and 20 μg/kg for body weight and bone breaking force.
  S.D. Goodgame , F.J. Mussini , C. Lu , C.D. Bradley , N. Comert and P.W. Waldroup
  Recent studies have suggested that phytase enzymes may influence sodium (Na) metabolism in the chick. However, no studies have demonstrated that the dietary Na requirement itself is influenced by phytase supplementation. In the present study male broilers were fed diets with Na levels ranging from 0.10 to 0.28% using NaCl as the source of supplemental sodium. Diets were fed either without phytase or with 500 (1X), 1000 (2X), or 2000 (4X) FTU/kg of phytase. For 1X phytase the Ca and Nonphytate P (NPP) were reduced 0.10% each and 0.20% each for the 2X and 3X levels of phytase supplementation. The diets with 0.10% and 0.28% Na were blended to provide Na levels of 0.10, 0.13, 0.16, 0.19, 0.22, 0.25 and 0.28% Na. Aliquots of these diets were then supplemented with the 0, 1X, 2X and 4X levels of phytase in a 4 x 7 factorial arrangement of treatments, each of which was fed to six replicate pens of five male broilers in electrically heated battery brooders. Experimental diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum consumption from day of hatch to 18 d of age. At 16 d excreta samples from each pen were freeze dried to determine moisture, Ca and P content. At 18 d body weight and feed consumption were determined. Two birds per pen were killed by CO2 inhalation and tibias removed and subjected to bone breaking determination. Chicks fed diets with the different levels of phytase with diets adjusted for anticipated release of Ca and P did not differ significantly in BW, Feed Conversion (FCR), mortality, or fecal moisture content, indicating that the adjustments made for anticipated release of Ca and P was adequate in relation to these measurements. Sodium levels of the diet had significant effects on BW, FCR and fecal moisture. Fecal moisture increased with each level of sodium, so lower dietary levels would be beneficial in this regard. No significant effects on mortality were noted for sodium levels. No significant interactions were noted between sodium level and phytase supplementation for BW, FCR, fecal moisture, or mortality. Regression analyses suggested a sodium requirement of 0.21±0.02% for BW and 0.15±0.01% for FCR. Estimates of sodium requirement at different levels of phytase supplementation did not show any consistent effect of phytase supplementation on the sodium requirement for BW or FCR. Therefore there is no evidence that phytase supplementation will modifiy the dietary sodium requirement of the broiler chick.
  F.J. Mussini , C.A. Coto , S.D. Goodgame , C. Lu , A.J. Karimi , J.H. Lee and P.W. Waldroup
  The possibility of improving digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides present in broiler diets by the use of different carbohydrase enzymes appears as an opportunity to enhance feed utilization by the birds. In this study, the effect of a beta-mannanase product on nutrient digestibility in corn-soybean meal diets was investigated. One-day-old chicks received a nutritionally complete corn-soybean meal for 19 days. At that time birds were randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had six replicates of five birds housed in battery brooders with wire floors. Aliquots of the basal diet were supplemented with four levels of CTCZYME (CTC Bio Inc., Seoul Korea): 0%, 0.025%, 0.05% (recommended level) and 0.10%. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. Feed was analyzed for gross energy, chromium and amino acid content. After eight days of acclimation to the test diets, birds were sacrificed and ileal contents collected. Analysis of the ileal contents indicated that digestibility of Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Arg, Leu, Ile, Cys and Val were significantly (p<0.0001) improved in a linear manner for each increment of enzyme. Ileal apparent metabolizable energy increased with each increment of CTCZYME level. These results show that the enzyme improves feed digestibility by making amino acids more available for the bird and increases energy utilization from the feed. These results suggest that lower levels of protein and energy could be used with the same results but further studies are required to estimate potential levels.
  F.J. Mussini , C.A. Coto , S.D. Goodgame , C. Lu , A.J. Karimi , J.H. Lee and P.W. Waldroup
  The effect of a commercial beta-Mannanase enzyme (CTCZYME; CTC Bio Inc., Seoul, Korea) on broiler performance and dry matter output in corn-soybean meal diets was investigated. One hundred and twenty one-day-old male chicks of a commercial broiler strain were fed for 19 d on a nutritionally adequate diet based on corn and soybean meal. At that time birds were randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had six replicates of five birds each. Aliquots of the basal diet were supplemented with four levels of the CTCZYME: 0%, 0.025%, 0.05% (recommended level) and 0.1%. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After eight days of acclimation excreta was collected daily, weighed and dried at 130°C for 24 h to obtain the dry matter output. After seven days of excreta collection the birds were weighed and the experiment was terminated. There were no significant differences for body weight gain, feed conversion or feed intake. The addition of CTCZYME at the inclusion level of 0.05% and 0.1% significantly reduced (p<0.002) the daily dry matter excreta output per bird. Analysis of the excreta showed a reduction of the nitrogen level as the level of CTCZYME increased, indicating an improvement in nitrogen utilization by the bird. Gross energy of the excreta decreased as the inclusion level of the enzyme increased. When the inclusion levels of the enzyme increased, calcium and phosphorus levels increased, possibly due to a concentration effect. Higher levels of chromium in the excreta were observed with the increment of the enzyme, suggesting an improvement on the digestibility of the feed product of the effect of the beta-mannanase. These data indicate that nutrient digestibility is enhanced by the effect of CTCZYME. The reason for the increasing digestibility not affecting the broiler performance may be due to the short time the enzyme was included in the diet. Another possibility is that a change in carcass composition may have occurred; more protein could have been deposited on the carcass instead of fat when the enzyme was included but further studies are required to confirm this assumption. Also, it has to be taken into account that the dietary protein levels provided the needs for the bird and they probably did not need to assimilate the now more available amino acids due to the effect of CTZyme.
  Y.N. Min , F.Z. Liu , A. Hancock , C. Coto , C. Lu , A. Karimi , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding Rovabio Max, an exogenous enzyme containing xylanase, β-glucanase, pectinase, mannanase, phytase and α-galactosidase activity to broiler diets with normal or reduced nutrient levels. Positive control diets for 0-3 wk and 3-6 wk were prepared based on NRC (1994) recommendations with Lys adjusted to 1.2% for 0-3 wk and 1.1% for 3-6 wk. These diets were formulated with or without the addition of 20% Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) of known composition. Reduced nutrient diets were prepared by reducing dietary metabolizable energy by 40 kcal/lb (88 kcal/kg), Ca by 0.10% and available P by 0.12% (EPC) and by an additional reduction of 5% in essential amino acids (EPC+AA). All diets were then fed with or without the addition of Rovabio Max at 200 g/ton as suggested by the manufacturer. Each diet was fed to four pens of 60 male birds of a commercial strain (Cobb 500) maintained in litter floor pens. Birds were weighed and feed consumption determined at 21 and 42 d of age. Two birds per pen were killed and tibia ash determined at 21 and 42 d; five birds per pen were killed at 42 d to determine carcass dressing percentage and parts yield. Birds fed the EPC diets did not differ significantly from those fed the positive control diet for body weight, mortality, tibia ash, dressing percentage, or breast meat yield at any point in the study. Additional reduction in amino acid content of the diets (EPC+AA) resulted in a significant decrease in 42 d body weight and a reduction in 21 d tibia ash compared to birds fed the positive control diet. Numerical differences in feed conversion were observed for both levels of nutrient reduction but not commensurate to the reduction in dietary energy content. Therefore, response to any exogenous enzyme might be expected to be minimal. The only positive response to the addition of Rovabio Max was a significant improvement in 21 d tibia ash, due to the phytase activity of the enzyme combination. Inclusion of 20% DDGS in diets in the present study had no adverse effects on broiler performance. The response to the DDGS was significantly higher in diets with reduced amino acid levels; the DDGS sample in the present study contained similar levels of crude protein as in the assigned nutrient matrix but the quality of the product appeared to be superior as judged by the light color indicating minimal overheating. It would appear that the level of nutrient reduction in the present study was not sufficient to result in significant reduction in performance, other than tibia ash at 21 d. In order to demonstrate positive effects from this or other enzymes, it is necessary to have diets with a greater degree of nutrient reduction than imposed in the present study.
  Y.N. Min , F.Z. Liu , A. Karimi , C. Coto , C. Lu , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a commercial carbohydrase preparation (Rovabio® Max AP) on protein and energy utilization of diets with 0 or 30% DDGS. One hundred and ninety two, 18-day old male broiler chicks of a commercial strain (Cobb 500) were randomly distributed among six treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Each treatment was replicated four times, with six chicks per replicate. Treatments included two basal diets containing 0 or 30% of DDGS; each supplemented with or without an enzyme preparation fed at the level recommended by the manufacturer (1X), two (2X) and four times (4X) the recommended level. After a five-day adaptation period, excreta samples were collected for determination of AME and N retention (NR). Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion, fecal gross energy (GE) and N, AME, AMEn, GE digestibility and NR were determined. The results showed that weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly affected by level of DDGS or enzyme inclusion in the diet, or their interactions. Excreta N and GE were significantly increased by inclusion of 30% of DDGS in the basal diet. While AME and AMEn values were not affected by the addition of high level of DDGS in the diet, GE digestibility and NR were significantly affected. Supplementation of either basal diet with different levels of enzyme had no significant effects on excreta N content or AME, GE digestibility, or NR values. Moreover, the interaction between different levels of DDGS and enzyme levels on performance or nutrient utilization parameters were not significant. These data indicate that the addition of the enzyme preparation used in this trial was not effective in improving nutrient utilization of corn-soybean meal diets with or without DDGS.
  F.J. Mussini , S.D. Goodgame , C. Lu , C.D. Bradley , S.M. Fiscus and P.W. Waldroup
  The utilization of vaccines has proven to be a good strategy to prevent coccidiosis but the process of immunity acquisition needs to be approached from a nutritional point of view as well if complete success in broiler performance is to be achieved. It has been reported that Glutamine (GLU) plays a key role both in the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system and its utilization could be beneficial to cocci-vaccinated broilers. In this study, twelve hundred one-day-old male chicks were vaccinated at a commercial hatchery with a coccidiosis vaccine and randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had six replications with 50 birds per pen. Birds were maintained in pens with built up wood shavings litter. Each treatment consisted of the same basal diet that met average nutrient levels in the U.S. poultry industry with four different inclusion rates of GLU (0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%). Birds were fed the experimental diets from 1 to 28 days of age and a common unsupplemented diet to 42 d. Body weights were significantly improved at 21 and 28 days for all the treatments where the GLU was included. Feed conversion was not significantly affected by the inclusion of GLU. There were no significant differences in body weight and feed conversion at 42 days but the numerical difference in weight between the control and the treatments with GLU observed earlier were maintained. At 43 days, eight birds per pen were processed in a pilot processing plant. Breast meat yield was not significantly different among treatments. Glutamine proved to be beneficial during the process of immunity acquisition improving broiler performance significantly until 28 days and maintaining the body weight difference until the end of the experiment.
  J. Yuan , A.J. Karimi , S.D. Goodgame , C. Lu , F.J. Mussini and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate an herbal methionine replacement product in diets for young broiler chicks. A corn-soybean meal diet that was complete in all respects but methionine was prepared and divided into three aliquots. One was supplemented with 0.30% DL methionine and another was supplemented with the herbal methionine replacement product. Each of these was then blended with the unsupplemented basal diet to provide diets with 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30% of either DL methionine or the herbal methionine replacement product. Each diet was fed to twelve pens of five male broiler type chicks each in electrically heated battery brooders. The diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum feeding from day of hatch to 18 d of age. Analysis of the diets indicated that the methionine activity of the diets with DL methionine was close to expected values but no apparent increase in analyzed methionine activity in diets supplemented with the herbal methionine replacement product. Body weight gain and feed conversion of birds fed the diets with DL methionine were significantly superior to that of birds fed the diets with the herbal methionine replacement product. No significant differences were observed between birds fed the two products for weight of digestive or immune organs when expressed as a percentage of body weight. These data suggest that the herbal methionine replacement product is not suitable for use as a methionine source in diets for young broiler chicks.
 
 
 
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