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Articles by E.A. Mukisira
Total Records ( 8 ) for E.A. Mukisira
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H. Wang Rong , E.A. Mukisira and N.K. Kibitok
  This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of manure or fertilizer application on height of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). After field preparation, representative soil samples were taken for mineral profiling. Sixty plots of 2x2 sq. m size were then demarcated and further divided into 5 similar units comprising of 4 blocks of 3 plots each. The plots in each block were independently allotted to 3 treatments in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Treatments were T1-control (without fertilization), T2 and T3 received dry beef cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer, respectively. All the 4 blocks (weed free) in each of the five (randomly distributed) units were planted on the same day. Harvesting was done at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks in a sequential manner starting with unit 1 to 5. All the blocks in each unit were harvested on the same day (at 5 cm height). Results showed that manure or fertilizer application had significant (p<0.0001; r2 = 0.9769) effect on height of Sorghum almum. ANOVA revealed high effect of cutting interval (p<0.0001) and cutting-treatment interaction (p<0.001). At 6 weeks the mean height in T2 (p<0.01) and T3 (p<0.001) were 12.74 and 19.05% higher than in T1. At 14 weeks T2 (p<0.01) and T3 (p<0.01) recorded 12.1 and 12.5% higher height than T1. At the same age however T2 and T3 were not different (p>0.05). The observed increases in the grass height between 6 and 14 weeks represented growth rate of 3.2, 3.6 and 3.5 cm d 1 for the 3 treatments respectively. Results further showed that height growth rates in T1, T2 and T3 were higher between 6 and 10 weeks (3.83, 3.77 and 3.95 cm d 1) compared to that recorded between 10 and 14 weeks (2.58, 3.4 and 3.12 cm d 1). The results also showed that height was strongly correlated with concentration of essential nutrients in the plant tissue. Gauging from the results of this study, availability and the known long-term residual effect, this study concluded that though both manure and fertilizer had significant effect on height, manure would be the best cost effective option for enhancing Sorghum almum growth rate and therefore yield on smallholder farms in Kenya.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Hongrong Wang , E.A. Mukisira , Mengzhi Wang , D.M. Kuria , Zhang Jie and W.O. Ayako
  Effect of forage type and chemical composition on vigor of rumen microbial community was investigated in vitro. Dry herbage samples used as culture media substrates were obtained from Sorghum almum, Vicia villosa and Commelina benghalensis established and harvested at 6, 10 and 14 weeks. Chemical analyses and constitution of incubation buffer solutions were done following standard procedures. Rumen liquor was obtained from 3 mature male goats (LW: 232 kg) fitted with rumen cannulae, housed in a well-ventilated group pen and fed a basal diet of fresh grass and supplemented with Lucerne hay. Bottles (225 mL capacity) containing 120 mL of the liquor-buffer mixture (1:2 v/v) and 1.2 g of substrate (30:70 soluble starch:dry forage samples milled to pass 1mm sieve) were incubated (39C) under anaerobic condition and microbial culture harvested after 24 h and determined. Data was analyzed using SAS. As expected, DM and fibre content increased whereas CP and EE content decreased with advancing forage maturity. It was noted that, culture media based on herbage harvested young had higher bacteria and protozoal biomass compared to those based on older herbage. The overall mean for bacterial and protozoal biomass in Sorghum almum, Vicia villosa and Commelina benghalensis based media were 0.325, 0.3782 and 0.3712 mg mL 1 and 0.2221, 0.2344 and 0.2539 mg mL 1, respectively. Results therefore indicate that forage type and chemical composition had significant effect on the vigor of rumen microbial community.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Hongrong Wang , E.A. Mukisira , F.B. Lukibisi , D.M. Kuria and N.K. Kibitok
  This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of manure and fertilizer application on yield of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). After field preparation, 60 plots of 22 m2 size were demarcated and further divided into 5 similar units comprising of 4 blocks of 3 plots each (N = 12). The plots in each block were independently allotted to 3 treatments in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Treatments were T1-control (with nether manure nor fertilizer), T2 and T3 received manure and inorganic fertilizer, respectively. All the 4 blocks (weed free) in each of the five (randomly distributed) units were planted on the same day and harvesting at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks in a sequential manner starting with unit 1-5. All the blocks in each unit were harvested on the same day (at 5 cm height) and the entire freshly harvested materials, per plot, were weighed. Representative grab samples were collected, chopped to pieces of 2 cm length, mixed and 2 composite samples (500 g each) were taken for Dry Matter (DM) determination and chemical analyses. DM, Ash and Crude Protein (CP) were determined according the standard procedures. Fresh Matter Yield (FMY), DM Yield (DMY), Organic Matter Yield (OMY) and Crude Protein Yield (CPY) per 4m2 were determined and translated to equivalent ha. Collected data was stored in MS-Excel and analyzed using SAS. Results showed that, at the age of 6 weeks, FMY and DMY (ton ha 1) in T3 (8.8 and 1.2, respectively) were 66.1 and 71.4% higher (p< 0.0001) than T1 (5.3 and 0.7). It was also observed that, T2 (6.9 and 0.9) and T1 were also different (p< 0.05) at this age. At the age of 14 weeks T1, T2 and T3 recorded 62.5, 77.2 and 85.6 ton FMY ha 1 and 13.5, 17.1 and 19.9 ton DMY ha 1, respectively. A similar trend was observed with OMY and CPY, with T2 and T3 (13.9 and 16.1 ton DM ha 1, respectively) registering 27.5 and 47.7% higher OMY than T1. The results also showed strong correlation of yield parameters studied. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that, treatment had strong effect on yield. It was therefore concluded that manure or fertilizer application substantially increased the yield of Sorghum almum, with animal manure being the most ideal cost effective option for smallholder resource-poor farmers in Kenya.
  Lanyasunya , T.P. Wang , H. Rong , E.A. Mukisira , S.A. Abdulrazak and N.K. Kibitok
  An In vitro gas production study was conducted to determine the effect of age and soil treatments on fermentation characteristics of Sorghum almum, Commelina benghalensis and Vicia villosa Roth. The soil treatments were: T1-not fertilized and T2 received DAP fertilizer. Forage samples used were obtained from herbage materials harvested at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks of growth. Dry samples (65 C for 24 h, 200 mg DM) of the harvested materials, were incubated in glass syringes with rumen fluid obtained from 2 Friesian steers fitted with permanent fistula. The gas volumes were recorded at 0, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h and the data fitted to the model P = a + b (1e-ct) after correction with blanks using in vitro gas fit-curve program. Forage chemical analyses were done according to standard procedures. The resulting data was analyzed using SAS. Results showed that nutrient composition of this forage, varied with both age at harvest and treatment. The overall means of the fermentation fractions (b) and (a + b) in T2 were higher than in T1 (p< 0.01) across the 3 forages. Strong correlation was observed between chemical composition and gas production. Pattern of gas production was strongly influenced by both treatment and age at harvest. It was therefore, concluded that, age at harvest, negatively affected rumen fermentation of these forages. Application of fertilizer improved in vitro gas production, suggesting enhanced fermentation.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H.H. Musa , Z.P. Yang , D.M. Mekki and E.A. Mukisira
  The relationship between nutrition and reproduction is a topic of increasing importance. Many research reports have clearly demonstrated that energy, protein and minerals intake are the most important nutritional factors affecting reproduction and therefore milk production in dairy farms. This is particularly evident on smallholder farms in the tropics where feed is often inadequate. On these farms, voluntary feed intake in relation to the feed required for maintenance is the most important factor determining the animal`s body condition. Many of the dairy animals on smallholder farms cannot build sufficient body reserves (particularly energy and protein) due to lack of adequate feed. As a direct consequence of feed inadequacy, dairy stock on most smallholder resource-poor farms are often in poor body condition (emaciated). Conception rate and calving intervals have been shown to be highly correlated, to by weight and body condition. The study revealed that animals with low body weights showed low conception rate and long calving interval. Energy and protein have shown to maintain essential levels of blood cholesterol and improve pregnancy from 42 to 72% respectively. Correlation of reproductive hormone cycle, calf and lamb birth rates, weaning rates, lactation length and yield with plane of nutrition, have been adequately illustrated. This is evidenced by the current high incidences of dairy cow infertility on smallholder farms in Kenya. Based on the literature reviewed, the current study concluded that poor nutrition is a major contributor to the current poor reproductive performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Poor nutrition is also largely incriminated for predisposing animals to diseases leading to high mortality and morbidity rates on these farms. It is therefore perceived that improvement of ruminant livestock diets on smallholder farms will greatly improve reproductive performance and therefore herd productivity on smallholder farms. In the long run, this will also impact positively on the economic status of the household.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Wang , H. Rong , E.A. Mukisira and S.A. Abdulrazak
  Kenyan dairy industry is a smallholder activity in terms of both milk production and volume of sales. The challenge, however, is how to sustain it amid myriad of constraints. The current study was carried out in Bahati division of Nakuru District over a period of 3 years. The objective was to quantify performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Out of the 120 smallholder households interviewed during the preceding feed survey, 60 of them were selected to participate in the trial. They were all trained on data collection. Dam weights and milk yields were monitored on monthly and daily basis respectively over 2 to 3 consecutive lactations. The collected data was stratified according to zero, semi-zero and free grazing systems and stored in MS Excel. SAS (ANOVA and proc. GLM) models were used to compare the differences between systems. Scatter plots were developed using Lotus. The study revealed that, of the many constraints facing smallholders, lack of sufficient land for forage production, is the most critical. Majority of farmers owned between 0.5 to 5 acres out of which over 80% was committed to food crop production. Established acreage of Napier grass, which is the most popular fodder crop among smallholder resource-poor farm was low (ranged: 0.125 to 0.5 acres). This was further complicated by farmers` inability to conserve feeds (silage or hay). Consequently dairy cows` performance was observed to be low across the 3 production systems. Body weights and milk yields showed a wide variation both within and between systems. Dairy cows in zero grazing systems recorded higher body weights (480±75; range: 345-601 kg) compared to those in free (338±39; range: 275-410) and semi-zero (397±59; range: 280-490 kg) grazing systems respectively (P< 0.0001; r2 = 59%). A similar trend was observed with milk yield (free: 5-12; semi-zero: 6-16 and zero grazing system: 8-24 kg/cow/d) (P< 0.0001). Cases of dairy stock morbidity and mortality due to diseases (tickborne, worms) exacerbated by malnutrition were also recorded. It was therefore concluded that, since little can be done on land scarcity, building farmers capacity on feed production, conservation and utilization would be the way forward. Development of suitable fodder crops, cost effective methods of feed production and ration formulation is therefore critical.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Wang , H. Rong , S.A. Abdulrazak and E.A. Mukisira
  Inadequate feeding and high disease prevalence are considered as the major setback to dairy production on smallholder farms in Kenya. Under such circumstances, heavy losses of young calves occur. This is the situation presently on these farms. The current study was conducted in Bahati division of Nakuru district over a period of 3 years. Out of 120 smallholder farmers randomly visited and interviewed, 60 of them were selected to participate in the trial, based on whether they have dairy cattle and willing to collaborate. The selected farmers were trained on data recording and provided with a heart-girth measuring tape, a spring balance (25 kg), a 10-litre plastic bucket (for feed weighing), a 1-litre graduated jug (for measuring milk) and a record book. They were then divided into two groups (Control and test) of 30 each. Control group was asked to continue with their ordinary calf management, where supplementation was not offered. Test farmers were asked to strictly follow the research calf-feeding schedule where Napier grass cv Bana was fed as a basal diet and supplemented with protein rich forages (Lucernne; Sweet potato vines cv Munsinya; Desmodium cv Green leaf and fodder shrubs (Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban). Parameters of study were growth rate, mortality, morbidity and dynamics. The collected data was stored in MS-excel and later subjected to appropriate statistical models (SAS) to established the calf performance difference between the 2 farm groups and livestock production systems. The results showed that calves in test farms performed better (370 g/d) compared to those in control farms (307 g/d)(P< 0.01). The study further revealed that calves supplemented with an assortment of protein rich forages showed a rapid body weight gain (375 and 417 g/d) compared to those offered SPV as a sole protein supplement (345 g/d) (P< 0.05). It was further observed that the overall female calf mortality in zero grazing test farms was low (6%) compared to semi-zero and free grazing test farms (15 and 20%, respectively)(P< 0.05). In the same farms mortality of male and female calves was different (P< 0.05). Mortality for male calves was observed to be higher (Test-zero: Male – 13%; Female – 6%; Control-zero: Male – 11% and Female 9%). The same trend was observed across the test and control farms in semi-zero and free grazing systems. On calf dynamics, off-take for male (33 – 78%) calves was observed to be much higher that for female calves (6 – 33%)(P< 0.001). It was therefore concluded that protein supplementation, using farm grown forages improves performance of dairy calves on smallholder farms. The authors recommend that resource-poor farmers emphasize on cultivation of forage legumes so as to have sufficient protein rich diets for young dairy calves.
  Lanyasunya , T.P. Wang , H. Rong , A.L. Chek , E.A. Mukisira and S.A. Abdulrazak
  This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of maturity on mineral content in Commelina benghalensis (Giant var M). Immediately after field preparation, representative soil samples were taken for mineral profiling. Thereafter, 60 plots of 2x2 sq. m size were demarcated and allotted to 5 similar blocks of 12 plots each in a randomized complete block design. Each plot received a total of 50 vines (15 cm long with 3 nodes each) evenly planted in 5 rows (2 m length and 30 cm apart). All the plots were planted on the same day and kept weed free throughout the study. The forage was harvested at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after planting (excluding the 1st 7 days considered as rooting period) in sequential manner beginning with block 1 to 5, each time leaving a stubble height of 5 cm. From each plot, representative herbage grabs were made, chopped into 2 cm pieces and mixed thoroughly. Two composite samples of about 1 kg each were then taken for dry matter determination and mineral analysis through the standard procedures. Results showed wide variations in the plant tissue concentration change patterns of different mineral elements over the study period. From the results, it was noted that P and Mg levels recorded a marginal decline of 0.6 and 13.8% respectively between 6 and 14 weeks. This represented decline rates of 8.93 and 7.14 mg kg -1 DM d -1. On the contrary, K registered a 31.39% increase from 6.18 at 6 to 8.12% at 14 weeks. Sodium and Ca recorded 35.19 and 49.78% drop in concentration over the same period. The level of Cu was fairly consistent throughout the study. That of Mn was observed to be inconsistent. Zinc levels however showed rapid decline 66.68% over the study period. From the results presented it was concluded that, macro-mineral content in Commelina benghalensis significantly decreased with advancing age of the forage. Trace elements, though were not significantly affected by age, their concentration occurred in quantities below ruminant livestock requirements suggesting the need for trace mineral supplementation. It was further concluded that, owing to high macro-mineral content, the giant Commelina benghalensis has a potential for enhancing the levels of essential minerals in the diets of ruminant livestock on smallholder farms in Kenya.
 
 
 
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