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Articles by Esref Isik
Total Records ( 8 ) for Esref Isik
  Esref Isik
  The some engineering properties of soybean grains were determined as a function of moisture content in the range of 10.62-27.06% dry basis (d.b.). The average length, width and thickness were 7.795, 7.123 and 4.189 mm, at a moisture content of 10.62% d.b., respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased from 6.369 to 8.048 mm and from 6.149 to 7.933 mm, respectively, while the sphericity increased from 0.788 to 0.835. In the moisture range from 10.62-27.06% d.b., studies on rewetted soybean grains showed that the thousand grain mass increased from 200 to 255 g, the projected area from 37.69 to 53.39 mm2, the true density from 1090 to 1200 kg m-3, the porosity from 40.36 to 54.16% and the terminal velocity from 8.01 to 9.1 m s-1. The bulk density decreased from 650 to 550 kg m-3 with an increase in the moisture content range of 10.62-27.06% d.b. The static coefficient of friction of soybean grains increased the linearly against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.3443-0.3919), aluminum (0.2867-0.3115), stainless steel (0.2905-0.3443), galvanized iron (0.2962-0.3482), glass (0.2309-0.2773) and MDF (medium density fiberboard) (0.2126-0.2679) as the moisture content increased from 10.62-27.06%.
  Esref Isik
  In this study, results of thermodynamically analysis were tested and compared, implementing the vacuum cooling of lettuce. According to the findings of the trial and results of the thermodynamically analysis, it is possible to determine the weight loss within an error of 2.12%, close to the other parameters to be used in the design of vacuum precooling system, such as temperature, pressure, enthalpy and entropy on specified points using the mathematical model prepared from thermodynamically equations. Moreover, the fact that the power need, the most important parameter in the design of the system, could be determined with a minimal error (0.162%) reveals that the thermodynamically analysis could be used in the design of a vacuum precooling system.
  Esref Isik and Hulya Isik
  The physical and mechanical properties of organic chickpeas (cv. Kocabas) grains were determined as a function of moisture content in the range of 11.31-25.03% dry basis (d.b.). The average length, width and thickness were 10.30, 8.41 and 8.33 mm, at a moisture content of 11.31% d.b., respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters and sphericity increased from 9.01 to 9.85 mm, from 8.96 to 9.80 mm and from 0.870 to 0.884, respectively. Studies on rewetted organic chickpea grains showed that the thousand seed mass increased from 432.22 to 640.00 g, the projected area from 58.30 to 71.50 mm2, the true density from 1000 to 1200 kg m-3, the porosity from 29.95 to 54.17% and the terminal velocity from 7.20 to 8.70 m sec-1. The bulk density decreased from 700.50 to 550.00 kg m-3 with an increase in the moisture content range of 11.31-25.03% d.b. The static coefficient of friction of organic chickpea grains increased the linear against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.4452-0.4986), aluminum (0.3939-0.4411), stainless steel (0.3541-0.3899), galvanized iron (0.4040-0.4557), glass (0.3057-0.3541) and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) (0.2867-0.3249) as the moisture content increased from 11.31-25.03% d.b. The shelling resistance of organic chickpea grains decreased as the moisture content increased from 101 to 70 N.
  Esref Isik and Nazmi Izli
  The physical properties of sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined as a function of moisture content in the range of 10.06-27.06% dry basis (d.b.). The average length, width and thickness were 7.79, 7.12 and 4.18 mm, at a moisture content of 10.06% d.b., respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased from 6.37 to 8.05 mm and from 6.15 to 7.93 mm, respectively, while the sphericity decreased from 0.789 to 0.835. In the moisture range from 10.06-27.06% d.b., studies on rewetted sunflower seeds showed that the thousand grain mass increased from 66 to 70 g, the true density from 885.00 to 902 kg m-3, the porosity from 53.06 to 54.93% and the terminal velocity from 4.07 to 4.57 m s-1. The bulk density decreased from 415.40 to 406.56 kg m-3 with an increase in the moisture content range of 10.06-27.06% d.b. The static coefficient of friction of sunflower seeds increased the linearly against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.55-0.65), aluminum (0.50-0.57), stainless steel (0.49-0.56), galvanized iron (0.53-0.59), glass (0.41-0.45) and MDF (medium density fiberboard) (0.43-0.48) as the moisture content increased from 10.06-27.06% d.b.
  Halil Unal , Esref Isik , Nazmi Izli and Yucel Tekin
  In this research, selected geometric and mechanical properties of mung bean grain were evaluated as a function of moisture content. Five levels of moisture content ranging from 7.28 to 17.77% d.b. (dry basis) were used. The average length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameters, sphericity, thousand grain mass and angle of repose ranged from 5.145 to 6.199 mm, 3.760 to 4.474 mm, 3.537 to 4.223 mm, 4.147 to 4.965 mm, 4.090 to 4.893 mm, 0.795 to 0.789, 52.3 to 64.6 g, and 25.87 to 29.38° as the moisture content increased from 7.28 to 17.77% d.b., respectively. The bulk density was found to be decreased from 821.3 to 745.2 kg/m3, whereas the grain volume, true density, porosity, terminal velocity, and projected area were found to be increased from 27.88 to 47.33 mm3, 1230.0 to 1456.7 kg/m3, 30.43 to 46.57%, 4.86 to 5.29 m/s, and 17.48 to 19.26 mm2, respectively. There is a 43% increase in surface area from grain moisture content of 7.28 to 17.77% d.b. The static coefficient of friction on various surfaces increased linearly with the increase in moisture content. The rubber as a surface for sliding offered the maximum friction followed by galvanised iron, medium density fibreboard, stainless steel, aluminium and glass sheet. As moisture content increased from 7.28 to 17.77%, the rupture forces values ranged from 67.39 to 39.44 N; 63.86 to 42.18 N, and 53.96 to 41.79 N for thickness (Z axis), length (Y-axis) and width (X-axis), respectively.
  Esref Isik
  In this study, weight loss and the methods to reduce weight loss were determined as well as the parameters of pressure, temperature and time during the vacuum cooling of lettuce, cauliflower, cabbage and spinach at low evacuation rate using three different methods and these were compared with the studies made before. The weight loss for every 1°C ratios of products with high specific volume values during vacuum pre-cooling practices are also high, since they can release the water inside their structure more easily. However, they are more suitable to vacuum pre-cooling compared with the other products. Spraying water onto the products which could not release their water readily, during vacuum pre-cooling reduces the weight loss for every 1°C and also increases the cooling rate. In this connection one can say that spraying water onto the lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach and thereafter covering them with perforated PVC film before cooling in the vacuum cooling process is a factor significantly reducing the weight loss for every 1°C and total weight loss.
  ESref ISik
  This study was conducted to investigate some moisture dependent physical and mechanical properties of green laird lentil grains namely, grain dimensions, thousand grain mass, surface area, projected area, sphericity, bulk density, true density, porosity, terminal velocity, static coefficient of friction against different materials. The average diameter and thickness were 6.72 and 2.58 mm, at a moisture content of 11.36% d.b., respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased from 5.340 to 5.685 mm and from 4.879 to 5.260 mm, respectively, while the sphericity decreased from 0.727 to 0.744. In the moisture range from 11.36-25.08% d.b., studies on rewetted green laird lentil grains showed that the thousand grain mass increased from 72.00 to 73.90 g, the projected area from 36.98 to 55.60 mm2, the true density from 1170 to 1420 kg m-3, the porosity from 29.91 to 55.63% and the terminal velocity from 5.90 to 7.10 m s-1. The bulk density decreased from 820 to 630 kg m-3 with an increase in the moisture content range of 11.36-25.08% d.b. The static coefficient of friction of green laird lentil grains increased against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.51-0.58), aluminum (0.48-0.57), stainless steel (0.38-0.44), galvanized iron (0.42-0.50), glass (0.35-0.40) and MDF (medium density fiberboard) (0.31-0.36) as the moisture content increased from 11.36-25.08% d.b.
  Esref Isik and Ertugrul Celik
  In this study, we investigated the effects of precooling and not precooling lettuce types Lital and Yedikule to +2 and +4°C and fresh bean types Aysekadin and Rodop to +8°C in a vacuum cooler on the weight loss and net weight of the products at the end of storage. No statistical difference in poststorage weight loss was found between vacuum precooling treatments in the lettuce trials; however, there was a significant (p<0.01) effect of vacuum precooling on poststorage weight loss in beans. Packaging of precooled products affected weight loss of lettuces and beans (p<0.01) and (p<0.05) significance, respectively. The weight loss in packaged products at the end of the vacuum cooling process was 1.82 and 0.74% in lettuces and beans, respectively, whereas in unpackaged products it was 5.05 and 2.41%. Plant types and packages affected the net weight of lettuces significance (p<0.01). Lital was the best product type with 42.34% net weight and packaging products was the best method with 44.95% net weight. No change in net weight was observed in the beans because there was no spoilage after storage.
 
 
 
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