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Articles by F.Z. Liu
Total Records ( 8 ) for F.Z. Liu
  Y.N. Min , F.Z. Liu , Z. Wang , C. Coto , S. Cerrate , F.P. Costa , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) combined with glycerin in broiler diets. In a 3x2 factorial arrangement, 600 one-day-old commercial strain Cobb 500 broilers were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 0, 15 and 30% DDGS of known composition; within each level of DDGS the diets contained 0 or 5% glycerin, respectively, from 0-42 days of age. Diets were formulated to meet digestible amino acid requirements and were fed in pelleted form. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Body weight gain and feed consumption were measured and carcass characteristics were evaluated at 42 days of age. Inclusion of 30% DDGS had no adverse effect on body weight of chicks; however birds fed diets with 30% DDGS had greater feed intake and poorer feed conversion than birds fed the control diet at most age periods. This was highly correlated to the reduced pellet quality of diets containing the high levels of DDGS. Birds fed diets with 30% DDGS also had significantly reduced dressing percentage compared to birds fed the control diet with no DDGS. However, there was no adverse effect on breast meat yield related to the higher levels of DDGS inclusion. Addition of 5% glycerin from biodiesel production to the diets had no significant effect on body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion. There was no significant effect of the addition of glycerin on dressing percentage or yield of various carcass parts. With one minor exception, there was no significant interaction between addition of glycerin and level of DDGS in the diet, even though pellet quality declined when glycerin was added to the diets. Overall, the results of this study demonstrates that 15% DDGS of known nutritional quality can be utilized in diets for growing broilers with no adverse effects provided diets are formulated on a digestible amino acid basis and meet the nutritional requirements of the broiler. Higher levels may be tolerated but there may be a loss in feed conversion unless pellet quality can be improved. A loss in dressing percentage at higher levels of DDGS has been consistently noted in this and previous studies. Incorporation of 5% glycerin from biodiesel production as a source of energy appears satisfactory.
  Y.N. Min , F. Yan , F.Z. Liu , C. Coto and P.W. Waldroup
  Glycerin, known as glycerol or glycerine, is the principal co-product of biodiesel production, produced through a NaOH- or KOH-catalyzed transesterification of the triacylglycerols in oils or fats with an alcohol. Glycerin is known to be a valuable ingredient for producing food, soaps, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Currently, with plenty of glycerin available to the world market, more uses are expected to develop, especially as a potential energy source for poultry diets, with approximately 4,100 kcal/kg of gross energy. Moreover, glycerin also plays a critical role in body cellular metabolism. Results from different laboratories on the use of glycerin as feed energy source for poultry are discussed in this article. Positive responses are obtained with glycerol content up to 10% in poultry diets. The AMEn also has been measured in several experiments. However, more indices such as carcass performance and blood parameters need to be determined in further studies.
  Y.N. Min , F.Z. Liu , A. Hancock , C. Coto , C. Lu , A. Karimi , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding Rovabio Max, an exogenous enzyme containing xylanase, β-glucanase, pectinase, mannanase, phytase and α-galactosidase activity to broiler diets with normal or reduced nutrient levels. Positive control diets for 0-3 wk and 3-6 wk were prepared based on NRC (1994) recommendations with Lys adjusted to 1.2% for 0-3 wk and 1.1% for 3-6 wk. These diets were formulated with or without the addition of 20% Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) of known composition. Reduced nutrient diets were prepared by reducing dietary metabolizable energy by 40 kcal/lb (88 kcal/kg), Ca by 0.10% and available P by 0.12% (EPC) and by an additional reduction of 5% in essential amino acids (EPC+AA). All diets were then fed with or without the addition of Rovabio Max at 200 g/ton as suggested by the manufacturer. Each diet was fed to four pens of 60 male birds of a commercial strain (Cobb 500) maintained in litter floor pens. Birds were weighed and feed consumption determined at 21 and 42 d of age. Two birds per pen were killed and tibia ash determined at 21 and 42 d; five birds per pen were killed at 42 d to determine carcass dressing percentage and parts yield. Birds fed the EPC diets did not differ significantly from those fed the positive control diet for body weight, mortality, tibia ash, dressing percentage, or breast meat yield at any point in the study. Additional reduction in amino acid content of the diets (EPC+AA) resulted in a significant decrease in 42 d body weight and a reduction in 21 d tibia ash compared to birds fed the positive control diet. Numerical differences in feed conversion were observed for both levels of nutrient reduction but not commensurate to the reduction in dietary energy content. Therefore, response to any exogenous enzyme might be expected to be minimal. The only positive response to the addition of Rovabio Max was a significant improvement in 21 d tibia ash, due to the phytase activity of the enzyme combination. Inclusion of 20% DDGS in diets in the present study had no adverse effects on broiler performance. The response to the DDGS was significantly higher in diets with reduced amino acid levels; the DDGS sample in the present study contained similar levels of crude protein as in the assigned nutrient matrix but the quality of the product appeared to be superior as judged by the light color indicating minimal overheating. It would appear that the level of nutrient reduction in the present study was not sufficient to result in significant reduction in performance, other than tibia ash at 21 d. In order to demonstrate positive effects from this or other enzymes, it is necessary to have diets with a greater degree of nutrient reduction than imposed in the present study.
  Y.N. Min , Z. Wang , C. Coto , F. Yan , S. Cerrate , F.Z. Liu and P.W. Waldroup
  This study was conducted to evaluate canola meal from biodiesel production as a feed ingredient for broilers. One-d-old commercial strain male broilers were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% canola meal. Diets were formulated to meet digestible amino acid requirements for periods of 0-14 d and 15-28 d. Each dietary treatment was replicated 6 times. Body weight and feed consumption were measured at 14 and 28 days of age. The results indicated that no significant (p>0.05) effect of canola levels was observed on feed intake, BW gain, feed conversion ratio, or mortality during the experimental period compared with control diets of soybean meal. Therefore, canola meal can be a valuable protein supplement for broilers when considered on a digestible amino acid basis. In this study, 25% canola was incorporated into broiler diets on a digestible amino acid basis without any negative effects on bird performance.
  Y.N. Min , F.Z. Liu , A. Karimi , C. Coto , C. Lu , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a commercial carbohydrase preparation (Rovabio® Max AP) on protein and energy utilization of diets with 0 or 30% DDGS. One hundred and ninety two, 18-day old male broiler chicks of a commercial strain (Cobb 500) were randomly distributed among six treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Each treatment was replicated four times, with six chicks per replicate. Treatments included two basal diets containing 0 or 30% of DDGS; each supplemented with or without an enzyme preparation fed at the level recommended by the manufacturer (1X), two (2X) and four times (4X) the recommended level. After a five-day adaptation period, excreta samples were collected for determination of AME and N retention (NR). Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion, fecal gross energy (GE) and N, AME, AMEn, GE digestibility and NR were determined. The results showed that weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly affected by level of DDGS or enzyme inclusion in the diet, or their interactions. Excreta N and GE were significantly increased by inclusion of 30% of DDGS in the basal diet. While AME and AMEn values were not affected by the addition of high level of DDGS in the diet, GE digestibility and NR were significantly affected. Supplementation of either basal diet with different levels of enzyme had no significant effects on excreta N content or AME, GE digestibility, or NR values. Moreover, the interaction between different levels of DDGS and enzyme levels on performance or nutrient utilization parameters were not significant. These data indicate that the addition of the enzyme preparation used in this trial was not effective in improving nutrient utilization of corn-soybean meal diets with or without DDGS.
  Y.N. Min , J.S. Shi , F.X. Wei , H.Y. Wang , X.F. Hou , Z.Y. Niu and F.Z. Liu
  The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of varying levels of dietary energy and protein on broiler performance and carcass quality of broilers from 22-42 days of age. A total of 720, 22 days old avian broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 groups, each group had six replicates and each replicate contained 10 birds. These birds were randomly assigned to 12 dietary treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement with three Metabolizable Energy (ME) levels (12.55, 12.97 and 13.38 MJ kg-1) and four Crude Protein (CP) levels (18.5, 19.0, 19.5 and 20.0%), respectively, from 22-42 days of age. The results showed that: both ME and CP significantly affected on daily gain, feed efficiency and body weight of 42 days of age (p<0.05); ME levels significantly affected on feed intake (p<0.05) while CP not affected (p>0.05). However, there were no significant interaction in BW, average daily gain, feed intake between dietary ME and CP; dietary ME significantly affected on semi-eviscerated percentage, dressing percentage, leg meat percentage and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Higher level of dietary ME (13.38 MJ kg-1) significantly increased abdominal fat percentage when compared with lower ME (12.55 and 12.97 MJ kg-1). Breast meat percentage was increased by dietary CP (p<0.05); L* of both leg meat and breast meat was not affected by dietary ME and CP (p>0.05), b* of both breast meat and leg meat was increased with increasing dietary ME (p<0.05). Both a* and b* were not affected by dietary CP; pH of breast meat was increased by dietary ME while not affected by dietary CP. The Water-Holding Capacity (WHC) of breast meat was decreased by dietary ME but the effect was not significantly (p>0.05). WHC of leg meat was increased by dietary ME (p<0.05). The results of present research indicated that the optimal dietary ME requirement of broilers from 22-42 days of age is 12.97 MJ kg-1 and the CP requirement is 19.0-20.0%.
  Y.N. Min , H.L. Li , L. Li , Z.Y. Niu , J.J. Wang , S.K. Liu , J. Zhang and F.Z. Liu
  This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary DDGS levels on small intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 720 Cobb 48 male broilers were used in this experiment. Birds were fed diets formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% DDGS, respectively for a period of 6 week. On day 21 and 42, significant differences were observed in Villus Height (VH), Crypt Depth (CD) and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum except for ileum on day 42. About 10-15% DDGS inclusion level showed better VH, CD and VCR for broiler intestinal morphology. Therefore, dietary added with DDGS can improve intestinal morphology, up till to 15% DDGS concentrations were considered to be suitable for broiler starter and grower age.
  Z.Y. Niu , Y.N. Min , X.H. Wang , F.X. Wei , P.X. Jiao and F.Z. Liu
  This study was intended to assess effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, immune function as well as anti-oxidative capacity of broilers. A total of 240, 1 day old Avian broiler chicks divided randomly into three treatments, each of which was composed of eight replicates with ten birds and birds fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 150, 300 mg kg-1 vitamin C, respectively. Results showed that dietary vitamin C addition could significantly increased average daily weight gain and feed intake of the broilers (p<0.05) but did not have significant effects on their feed to gain ratio; compared with the control treatment, dietary vitamin C addition at 300 mg kg-1 could significantly increased the pectoral muscle percentages, abdominal fat percentages and liver weight ratio of broilers (p<0.05). Dietary vitamin C additions could significantly increase pectoral muscle b* and leg muscle L* of the broilers and that significantly improved the water holding capacity and tenderness of their leg muscles (p<0.05). The thymus index, bursa of Fabricius index, Newcastle disease antibody level of broilers were much higher where vitamin C was added at 300 mg kg-1 than in the control treatment indicating that immunity of broilers got effectively improved (p<0.05). Dietary vitamin C addition at 300 mg kg-1 significantly increased the vitamin C content in blood serum and pectoral muscles (p<0.05), also superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and total anti-oxidative capacity in blood serum significantly increased (p<0.05), so that dietary vitamin C addition was helpful to eliminating free radicals and raising anti-oxidative capacities of broilers. Dietary vitamin C addition at 300 mg kg-1 significantly slowed down lipid per-oxidation and color variation of pectoral muscles while the muscles were refrigerated at 4°C, so that it took effect along with anti-oxidative enzymes to inhibit oxidation-caused meat quality deterioration, stabilize meat colors and prolong meat shelf life. Results of the present study indicated that dietary vitamin C addition at 150 mg kg-1 performed better in improving growth performances and immune functions of broilers and dietary vitamin C addition at 300 mg kg-1 performed better in improving body and muscle anti-oxidative capacity, reducing lipid per-oxidation in meat storage and prolonging meat shelf life.
 
 
 
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