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Articles by J.N. Buah
Total Records ( 10 ) for J.N. Buah
  J.N. Buah
  A seventy question questionnaire were administered to (1,200) respondents to find out the perceptions of the Ghanaian public on Genetically modified foods (GM Foods). The questionnaires which covered wide range of issues and structured such that a complete picture of the understanding and perceptions of the respondents would clearly come out, were administered between March 2009 to September 2009. The respondents cut across sectors of the country (Academics, Researchers, Government ministry workers and ordinary Ghanaians) to ensure a good representation of the public. Three hundred people were selected from each of the four categories. Even though more than 60% of respondents from all the categories had heard of GM food, the level of knowledge for most of the respondents was rated as low or average. This was because apart from 50 and 60%, respectively of academics and researchers who had heard of GM foods from workshops, most of the respondents had heard of GM foods from friends, who themselves may not have had a better understanding of GM foods. More than 80% of the respondents from government ministry workers and the ordinary Ghanaian category were unwilling to accept GM foods and their rejection was based on the fear of unknown side effects and on ethical considerations. It was evident that there is the need for a more comprehensive public education and debates to improve the perceptions of the public on GM foods.
  J.N. Buah , J.W. Tachie-Menson , G. Addae and P. Asare
  The suitability of sugarcane juice for the in vitro culture of bananas and plantains was investigated in this study. Two concentrations of sugar cane juice 5, 10% and 30 g L-1 laboratory sucrose were used. There was also a control medium without carbon source. Explants were prepared from field grown sword suckers. The preparation of the explants involved, sterilization with 70% ethanol, followed by 1% Sodium hypochlorite+1% tween 20. The explants were cultured at 26°C, under 16 h photoperiod, light intensity of 3000 lux and a relative humidity of 60%. Plants that were cultured on 5% sugarcane juice had higher average fresh weight values of 16.6 g per plant compared to those that were cultured on the 30 g L-1 sucrose and 10% sugarcane juice which had fresh weight of 15.6 g per plant and 11.0 g per plant, respectively. Oniba had higher fresh weight on medium supplemented with 5% sugarcane juice compared to the two other cultivars. In terms of dry weight, ‘Oniaba’ again had the highest value of 7.2 g per plant which was obtained on medium supplemented with 5% sugarcane juice. Plants that were cultured on 5% sugarcane juice were better in terms of shoot height and number of shoots per plant than those cultured on 30 g L-1 sucrose and the differences between the 5% sugarcane juice and the other treatments were statistically different. The various carbon sources and their concentrations also affected the water potential of the media. Medium supplemented with 10% sugarcane juice had the lowest water potential of -0.8 MPa compared to the control medium that had a water potential of -0.1 MPa. Medium supplemented with 5% sugarcane juice and 30 g L-1 sucrose had in a medium water potential of -0.3 MPa. Five percent sugarcane juice was found to be a better substitute for laboratory grade sucrose for the in vitro propagation of Musa sp.
  J.N. Buah
  In this study, the suitability of cassava starch for the in vitro culture of banana tissues was investigated. A combination of cassava starch and agar was used as a solidifying agent as against pure cassava starch and pure agar. Three types of media with respect to the inclusion of cassava starch were prepared as; media with 60 g cassava starch, 6 g agar and 2 g agar+40 g cassava starch. Explants were prepared by sterilizing them with 70% ethanol which was followed by 1% sodium hypochlorite+tween 20. They were then cultured at 26°C. The conditions in the culture room were 16 h photoperiod, 3000 lux light intensity and a relative humidity of 60%. Tissues cultured on medium with a combination of cassava starch and agar had the highest fresh weight values of 25 g and this was significantly different from those cultured on the other two media. Dry weight was also better (10 g) for plantlets cultured on a combination of cassava starch and agar, compared to those on agar alone which had dry weight value of 8 g. Medium with agar alone had a water potential of -0.4 MPa and that of medium with a combination of cassava and agar was -0.3 MPa. The growth of plantlets was better on medium with cassava starch and agar combination even though the differences in some of the parameters measured were not significant. This also reflected in the number of roots produced per plantlet and subsequently the percentage survival in the nursery. Cassava starch was thus found to be a suitable substitute for agar in the in vitro culture of banana.
  J.N. Buah , E. Danso , K.J. Taah , E.A. Abole , E.A. Bediako , J. Asiedu and R. Baidoo
  The study was aimed at determining the appropriate type and level of cytokinin required to achieve shooting response in two cultivars of plantain (Oniaba and Apantu pa). Three cytokinin types, Benzylaminopurine (BAP), Kinetin and 2ip at two different concentrations (4.5 and 7.5 mg L-1) were used. The apical meristem of each cultivar was isolated using appropriate protocol for shoot tip isolation under aseptic conditions. Media supplemented with 4.5 mg L-1 BAP induced the highest number of shoots after eight weeks of culture. There was also a variation in the ability of the cytokinin types to induce shooting in both cultivars. BAP had the highest shoot induction response in both cultivars, followed by Kinetin and 2ip. Each hormone appeared to have an optimal level of concentration for maximum shooting. Oniaba responded favourably to BAP at 4.5 mg L-1 where as Apantu pa was virtually indifferent to the Kinentin types. The degree of efficiency of shooting was therefore found to be dependent on the type of hormone and the plantain cultivar.
  J.N. Buah , G.C. Van der Puije , E.A. Bediako , E.A. Abole and F. Showemimo
  The research was carried out to investigate the cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on different substrates. The steps involved in the cultivation were composting the substrates, bagging the substrates, sterilizing the bagged compost, spawning, incubation and cropping. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replications. Pinhead formation was faster (12 days), on the substrate made from grounded corn cob and the fruiting bodies formed in 27 days. The average number of fruiting bodies on the corn cob substrate was 28. Similarly, the fresh weight and dry weight of the fruiting bodies were all high for corncob substrate. These were in line with the figures of the biological efficiency which was higher for the corn cob substrate.
  J.N. Buah
 

A CASE OF PLAGIARISM

(Case No. 09302011)

Mark Guiltinan, Professor of Plant Molecular Biology from Penn State University pointed out a plagiarism in a paper published in Biotechnology Volume 9, Number 3, 355-361, 2010.

On the receipt of the letter from Mark Guiltinan, the case forwarded to the Ethics Committee of the Science Alert. As per the report of the Ethics Committee, article entitled "Callus Induction and Somatic Embryogenesis in Five Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Genotypes in Ghana" authored by J.N. Buah, published in Biotechnology Volume 9, Number 3, 355-361, 2010 contains substantial sections of text that have been taken verbatim from earlier publication without clear and unambiguous attribution.

Science Alert considers misappropriation of intellectual property and duplication of text from other authors or publications without clear and unambiguous attribution totally unacceptable.

Plagiarism is a violation of copyright and a serious breach of scientific ethics. The Editors-in-Chief and Publisher agreed to officially retract this article.

Science Alert is highly thankful to Mark Guiltinan, Professor of Plant Molecular Biology from Penn State University for pointing out this plagiarism.

Detail of article from which text has been copied by J.N. Buah:

Zhijian Li, Abdoulaye Traore, Siela Maximova and Mark J. Guiltinan, 1998. Somatic Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from floral explants of Cacao (Theobroma Cacao L.) using thidiazuron. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. -- Plant 34: 293-299.

  J.N. Buah and J.W. Tachie-Menson
  The suitability of bud manipulation technique as an alternative to tissue culture in the regeneration of healthy planting material for farmers was investigated from May 2013 to August 2013, at the University of Cape Coast. The bud manipulation technique was carried out where the apical meristem of the corm was cut through to remove apical dominance effect. One hundred and twenty corms from sword suckers were used for each of the techniques, forty for each of the three cultivars (2 plantain cultivars and 1 banana cultivar). The tissue culture protocol was used for the in vitro culture. Generally, the explants produced more shoots in vitro compared to the bud manipulation technique. The highest number of shoot, 23 per explant under the in vitro technique was from the plantain cultivar Apantu whilst 15 shoots per explant were produced from the same cultivar, with the bud manipulation technique. The same trend was observed with the shoot height. Tissue cultured shoots had a maximum mean shoot height of 25 cm from Apantu whilst bud manipulation technique produced plantlets with maximum mean shoot height of 14 cm. The three cultivars performed better with tissue culture and of the three cultivars, Apantu had a better performance. Even though tissue culture produced more shoots compared to the bud manipulation technique, the number of shoots, shoot height and percentage survival of plantlets from the bud manipulation makes the bud manipulation technique a suitable alternative to tissue culture since it is farmer friendly and less expensive.
  J.B.K. Asiedu , E. Asare-Bediako , K.J. Taah and J.N. Buah
  The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various pre-sowing treatments on the germination of Bauhinia rufescens seeds. The pre-sowing treatments were made up of boiling seeds in water for up to 15 min and soaking seeds in water at room temperature for a number of days. Data collected was used to calculate cumulative germination percentage, germination value, speed of germination, mean daily germination and coefficient of velocity and was analyzed using analysis of variance at 5%. Treatment 1 (<10 sec boiling) produced the highest cumulative germination percentage of 77. Soaking seeds in water at room temperature for any number of days (T3, T4, T7, T11, T14) did not have any significant effect on germination, neither did boiling seeds for 15 min (T2) and the control (T15). Apart from T1, all the other treatments had a cumulative germination percentage of less than 20 at the end of the experiment. Boiling of Bauhinia rufescens seeds in water for less than 10 sec (T1) proved to be the most effective pre-sowing treatment to enhance germination under field conditions. Soaking of seeds in water for any number of days could not improve germination.
  E. Asare- Bediako , F.A. Showemimo , J.N. Buah and Y. Ushawu
  Tomato production in the Bontanga irrigation area has reduced drastically. Thus, a study was conducted to identify the problems. Structured and unstructured questionnaires were administered to 50 farmers randomly selected from about 90 farmers in the study area for two years. The results showed that 60% of the farmers were illiterates and 20% had formal education. Over 70% of the farmers obtained their seed from markets and unregistered agro-stores and the remaining use their reserved seeds. Most of the farmers practice continuous sole cropping and very few crop rotations. The farmers also indicated lack of credit facilities as the major bane of tomato production. About 90% of the farmers complained of salinity, water logging, soil erosion and degradation, sedimentation, build up of pests and diseases as a result of irrigation related problems. Formation of farmers cooperatives or group will help solve or minimize the constraints of dwindling tomato production in this area.
  J.N. Buah and P. Agu-Asare
  The ability of coconut water to support the regeneration of banana plantlets in vitro was investigated from March to September 2014 at the Plant Genetic Resource Institute, Bunso, Ghana. The 100 mL L-1 coconut water was compared with 4.5 mg L-1 BAP. The tissues were cultured for 16 weeks at 267°C, 16 h. photoperiod, 3000 Lux light intensity and relative humidity of 60% with data taken on Fresh weight, Dry weight, Shoot number, Shoot height and other parameters. Explants cultured on 4.5 mg L-1 BAP produced 37 shoots/explant while those on 100 mL L-1 coconut water recorded 25 shoots/explant. However, for plant height, plant cultured on medium supplemented with coconut water from fresh green fruits had height of 18 cm but those cultured on medium with BAP had a height of 15 cm at 16 weeks. The differences between the performance of plants on BAP and coconut water were however not significant. Coconut water from the fresh green fruits was observed to be a suitable alternative to BAP in the in vitro culture of banana plants.
 
 
 
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