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Articles by M. El Mahjoub
Total Records ( 12 ) for M. El Mahjoub
  M. Daami-Remadi , K. Hibar , H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine , F. Ayed and M. El Mahjoub
  Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum f.sp. tuberosi, F. solani, F. graminearum and F. sambucinum causing potato dry rot in Tunisia. In vitro dual culture experiments, observed after incubation at 25°C for 6 days, showed that both tested Trichoderma species significantly reduced mycelial growth of Fusarium spp. comparatively to untreated controls and that a significant interaction was noted between both fixed factors (at p≤0.05). Light microscopic studies of antagonists x Fusarium spp. in vitro interactions showed lesser mycelium density, severe lysis, lesser pathogen sporulation, mycelial cords formation and early chlamydospores induction which were observed only at the confrontation zone of both microorganisms. Potato tubers, cv. Spunta, individually treated, at inoculation sites by 100 μL of Trichoderma spp. suspensions (108 spores mL-1), 24 h prior inoculation by Fusarium species, showed reduction in dry rot development, after 21 days of incubation at 25-27°C, comparatively to untreated controls.
  M. Daami-Remadi , F. Ayed , H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine , K. Hibar and M. El Mahjoub
  Several fungicides are tested individually or in dual combination against four Fusarium species causing potato tuber dry rot in Tunisia. Incorporated into the culture media PDA, the tested fungicides significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of all Fusarium species incubated at 25°C for 6 days; a significant interaction was observed between the both fixed factors (p≤0.05). Applied on potato tubers (tuber immersion for 10 min) prior inoculation, all tested fungicides, combined or not, have significantly reduced by more than 50%, comparatively to the untreated controls, the development of dry rot occasioned by Fusarium sp. after 21 days of incubation at 25-27°C. A significant interaction was observed between the treatments and the Fusarium species (p≤0.05). In natural conditions, tuber treatment by the tested fungicides, prior their definitive storage, has reduced dry rot development by about 50%. A synergistic effect was observed in vitro, in vivo and in situ between the mixed fungicides traduced by a better efficacy, in comparison to their individual effects, showing their compatibility and the promotion of the disease control. These combined fungicides could play a role in an integrated pest management against potato tuber-borne pathogens.
  H. Mehri , R. Mehri-Kamoun , A. Ben Dhiab and M. El Mahjoub
  Effects of three insecticides (Dimethoate (Dimate), Deltamethrine (Decis) and Oleoparathion (Oleokriss)) and a bioinsecticide (bactospeine) were compared over three olive cultivars Meski, Gerboui (local) and Coratina (introduced) to determine if insecticide treatment during bloom had an effect on olive productivity. Treatments were applied to field-grown trees during green-cluster stage and their effects were assessed by comparing pollen viability, germination and tube growth, bloom onset and fruit set efficiencies. After spraying, pollen was collected and germinated on insecticide-free media. Individual performance of the three cultivars is illustrated in this study. Generally, all olive cultivars showed similar trends with low pollen germination and tube growth, low fruit set and shortening of flowering period in presence of Oleoparathion and increasing to high levels in presence of Bactopeine. Oleoparathion treatments retarded germination, ruptured pollen tubes and damaged stigmatic surfaces in vivo. Germination and tube length were reduced when Dimethoate, Deltamethrine and Oleoparathion at 100% RFR were applied to pollen insecticide-free media. In contrast, at 10 and 1% RFR, these insecticides were less inhibitory and showed no difference from the control. Increased germination percentages and enhanced tube elongation were obtained when Bactospeine was sprayed to trees at 100, 10 and 1% RFR and for all the olive cultivars studied. It increases germination and tube length and has been partially effective in increasing mean fruit set and in shortening fruit development period. Flowering has been delayed for up to five days. Bactospeine sprays increased the extent and earliness of flowering period with increased Bactospeine spray concentration. It advanced blooming by 4-6 days according to cultivar while Oleoparathion shortened it. Bactospeine sprays also resulted in greater fruit set and fruit fresh weights and in earlier fruit ripening compared to the controls.
  N. Boughalleb , A. Moulahi and M. El Mahjoub
  Four fungicides were evaluated for their effectiveness against Phytophthora cactorum affecting apple trees and their ability to be absorbed and translocated by roots of apple tree. Ridomil gold MZ68 (metalaxyl+mancozeb) and curvax M (cymoxanil+mancozeb) suppressed the in vitro development of this fungus at high doses (100 and 1000 μg m-1). Mikal flash (fosetyl-Al+folpet) and melody duo (iprovalicarb+propineb) reduced mycelium growth of P. cactorum when used at all tested doses. In vivo, melody duo was the less effective. The in vivo treatment of plant was more significant when the plant is not severely infested.
  F. Ayed , M. Daami-Remadi , H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine and M. El Mahjoub
  Behaviour of some potato cultivars to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tuberosi was studied. Plants were inoculated after two weeks by irrigation with a conidial suspension (107 spores mL-1). Variations of Fusarium wilt incidence were observed on potato 14 cultivars. Cv. Baraka was the most tolerant, Lyra and Platina were the most susceptible and Asterix, Alaska, Safrane and Timate were found to be intermediate with various degrees of response. Pathogen transmission to progeny tubers was assessed by planting daughter tubers coming from inoculated and non inoculated plants. Differences in incidence of cultivar susceptibility were significant. Disease incidence of Latona and Timate was the most and the least important, respectively.
  H. Mehri , R. Mehri-Kamoun and M. El Mahjoub
  In order to determine if insecticide treatment during bloom had an effect on olive productivity, three insecticides: Dimethoate (Dimate), Deltamethrine (Decis) and Oleoparathion (Oleokriss) and a bioinsecticide (Bactospeine) were studied over Coratina olive cultivar. These compounds, were applied, at variable concentrations of 100, 10 and 1% RFR, to pollen culture medium or sprayed to field-grown trees during green-cluster stage. Their effectiveness was evaluated on the germination capacity (% germination and tube growth). When added to pollen culture medium, increased germination percentage of Coratina pollen and in vitro enhanced tube elongation were obtained when Bactospeine at 100, 10 and 1% RFR. Germination and tube length were reduced when Dimethoate, Deltamethrine and Oleoparathion were applied to Coratina pollen germination media at 100% RFR. Oleoparathion at 100% and 10% RFR inhibited both pollen germination and tube growth. In contrast, at 1% RFR, Oleoparathion was less inhibitory. Deltamethrine at 100% RFR inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. An intermediate inhibitory effect on pollen germination and tube elongation were observed when Dimethoate was used at 100% RFR. When the insecticides were sprayed on the shoots of Coratina olive cultivar just before blooming, treatments showed similar trends with low pollen germination and tube growth in presence of Oleoparathion and increasing to high levels in presence of Bactopeine. Germination and tube length were reduced when Dimethoate, Deltamethrine and Oleoparathion at 100% RFR were applied to pollen insecticide-free media. In contrast, at 10 and 1% RFR, these insecticides were less inhibitory and showed no difference from the control. Applications of Oleoparathion most severely reduced pollen germination, retarded germination, ruptured pollen tubes and damaged stigmatic surfaces in vivo.
  M. Daami-Remadi , H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine , F. Ayed and M. El Mahjoub
  Mycelial growth on PDA of Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi, F. sambucinum and F. solani, causal agents of potato tuber dry rot, depends upon temperatures ranging from 5 to 40°C. An interaction between pathogens tested and temperatures used for culture incubation was observed (at p≤0.05). These Fusarium species showed in vivo both thermal pics of aggressivity: a first one at low temperatures (10-15°C) and a second at higher temperatures (30-35°C). Nevertheless, at temperatures less than 25°C, F. sambucinum and F. graminearum were the most aggressive, while F. solani was the most aggressive at temperatures superior to 30°C.
  N. Boughalleb , A. Moulahi and M. El Mahjoub
  Studies on two isolates of Phytophthora cactorum recovered from apple plants identified the presence of diversity in pathogenicity. These isolates appeared pathogenic to tested apple trees. It revealed that Golden Delicious, Star Crimson and the rootstock MM106 were more susceptible than Richared and Red Delicious cultivars, but with variable levels of aggressiveness according to physiological stages of tested segments of apple plants. Necrosis caused by Phytophthora cactorum isolates was more important on shoot segments than on wood segments.
  M. Daami-Remadi , H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine , F. Ayed , K. Hibar , I.E.A Znaidi and M. El Mahjoub
  Eight thermo-resistant fungi isolated from compost extracts are tested, for the first time in Tunisia, for their antagonistic activity, in vitro by dual culture with Fusarium spp. on PDA and in vivo by wound treatment prior to tuber inoculation. In vitro experiments showed that all tested compost fungi significantly inhibited mycelial growth of F. graminearum, F. sambucinum, F. solani and F. oxysporum f.sp. tuberosi, observed after incubation at 25°C during 6 days, revealing a higher competition. Light microscopic studies of tested pathogen mycelium, removed from the confrontation zone of both microorganisms, showed multiple mechanisms of action including mycoparasitism, lysis, early formation of chlamydospores and induction of mycelial cords via anatomosis between mycelial filaments. Tuber (cv. Spunta) treatment, 24 h before their inoculation by individually thermoresistant fungi suspensions, reduced development of dry rot after incubation for 21 days at 25-27°C, comparatively to the untreated control and this for the majority of the Fusarium complex tested.
  N. Boughalleb and M. El Mahjoub
  In this study, we used direct incubation of watermelon dissected seeds on Komada`s selective medium for Fusarium spp. and incubation of entire seed on the same medium or on 2% agar medium. Identification of fungi was based on morphological criteria and also according to Koch`s postulate. Isolates from dissected seed were identified as F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae. These fungi were found to be externally and internally seed borne in watermelon. This is the first report of localization of Fusarium spp. transmitted by watermelon seeds in Tunisia.
  M. Daami-Remadi , H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine , F. Ayed and M. El Mahjoub
  Several fungicides were tested against some isolates belonging to four Fusarium species causing potato tuber dry rot in Tunisia. Incorporated into the culture media PDA, the tested fungicides significantly inhibited the mycelial growth, observed after incubation at 25°C for 4 days, of all Fusarium isolates including those of F. sambucinum resistant to benzimidazoles. A significant interaction (p ≤ 0.05) was observed between both fixed factors where inhibition percentage varied depending on tested pathogens and fungicides. Applied on potato tubers (tuber immersion for 10 min) prior inoculation, certain tested fungicides such as azoxystrobin and fludioxonil significantly reduced by more than 50%, comparatively to the untreated controls, the development of dry rot occasioned by F. graminearum and F. sambucinum observed after 21 days of incubation at 25-27°C. A significant interaction (p ≤ 0.05) was noted between the treatments and the Fusarium species traduced by a variable inhibition percentage depending on tested pathogen and fungicides.
  N. Boughalleb and M. El Mahjoub
  Isolation from watermelon seeds from six commercial seed companies demonstrated the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) and F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae (Fsc). Both fungi were detected internally, but predominantly externally. Isolation results showed that seed infestation level had a significant effect on subsequent disease incidence. Some seedlots were heavily infested with Fsc and Fon, resulting in a combined disease incidence of more that 50%. However, seed isolations resulted in a poor prediction of the resulting disease incidence when the seeds were planted. This is the first documentation that Fsc is seed-transmitted in watermelon.
 
 
 
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