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Articles by M.A. Awal
Total Records ( 16 ) for M.A. Awal
  M.A. Sayed , M.R. Gofur , A. Khair and M.A. Awal
  Arsenic is one of the most sensitive environmental issues in Bangladesh; even it is a major health concern in Asia. Spirulina and vitamin E have been considered as a potential therapeutic supplement due to its ability to minimize several element induced toxicities in various species including man. The study was performed to evaluate the role of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) and vitamin E in prevention of arsenic toxicity in different groups (T0-4, n = 60) of Long-Evans rats. T0 was control group, T1 was treated with sodium arsenite, T2 was treated with sodium arsenite plus spirulina, T3 was treated with sodium arsenite plus vitamin E and T4 was treated with sodium arsenite plus vitamin E plus spirulina daily for 63 days. Sodium arsenite was at 4 mg kg–1 b.wt., spirulina was at 1 g kg–1 feed and vitamin E was at 200 mg kg–1 feed. Samples were collected on day 21, 42 and 63. Arsenic was detected from tissue samples by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HGAAS). Sodium arsenite feeding in rats caused chronic arsenic toxicity and the arsenic content in tissues (blood, lung, liver and kidney) of the exposed rats were significantly higher than control rats. Spirulina and vitamin E treatments significantly lowered the arsenic content in tissues. Arsenic caused hepatic and renal dysfunction but spirulina and vitamin E improved the hepatic and renal functions. Spirulina feeding was more effective than vitamin E and their combined treatment was more effective compare to their single treatment. The study demonstrates the role of spirulina and vitamin E in the reduction of toxicity of arsenic.
  M.A. Awal , Wan Ishak , J. Endan and M. Haniff
  Specific leaf area (SLA), the ratio of leaf area to leaf mass is the most important determinant of oil palm growth, which is used in growth monitoring of oil palm and many crop simulation models to estimate total leaf area. Leaf dry weight and leaf area were determined by destructive methods in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study was to obtain suitable linear model for estimation of leaf area and calculation SLA of oil palm plantation with less error of estimation. The SLA was plotted on frond number and found that SLA was decrease systematically with time as the frond mature. In this study we found that the Leaf dry weight was strongly correlated (R2=0.96-0.98) with leaf area in both linear and non-linear regression. The leaf mass were regressed on leaf area using both linear and non-linear model and found following relationship: Leaf Mass=Leaf Area/99 (R2=0.96) Leaf mass were calculated from rectangular leaf area by above linear equation. Leaf Mass=0.0087 (Leaf Area)1.027 (R2=0.98) Leaf mass were calculated from rectangular leaf area by above non-linear equation. Actual leaf area (individual or whole of the oil palm plantation) were calculated from leaf dry weight by following linear and non-linear regression equation: Actual Leaf Area=78.89 x Leaf Mass (R2=0.97) Actual Leaf Area=80.926 (Leaf Mass)0.977 (R2=0.98) Its also found that the calculated leaf area and measured leaf area was strong linear relationship (R2=0.98).
  M.A. Awal , Wan Ishak , J. Endan and M. Haniff
  In this study a regression models for accurate estimation of leaf area from simple measured leaves length and middle width were described as well as assessment of total leaf area variation with frond ages. Results shows that total leaf area of the frond are decreased with increase frond ages and upper frond represents more leaf area than lower frond at same palm. In this study two models (linear and log-linear) were proposed for accurate estimation of leaf area. (a) Lac = 0.80 x (L.W) And (b) Log Lac = 0.957 x Log (L.W), where Lac, L and W represents the actual leaf area, leaf length and leaf width respectively. Statistical analysis indicates a high degree of association (R2 = 0.99) and the low standard errors of estimation were 0.7477. The standard error of estimate of coefficient was 0.0032 (model ‘a’). Logarithmic transform of data were also well fitted both linear and non-linear regression. However, it is considered only linear model for simplicity. These Logarithmic transform of data also indicate a high degree of association (R2 = 0.99) and the low standard error of estimation were 0.02. The standard error of estimate of coefficient was (0.0005). This model was validated using other experimental results, which showed a good agreement between measured and estimated leaf area.
  M.A. Awal and W.I. Wan Ishak
  In this study, accurate Leaf Area Index (LAI) of different palm age groups were determined by manual (direct) method. Optical methods for quantifying variation in LAI of different palm ages were evaluated using LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser (PCA) as an indirect method. In the manual method, LAI values obtained were 0.69, 1.11, 2.38, 2.49, 3.41, 3.83, 4.05 and in the indirect method LAI values obtained were 1.75, 1.4, 1.14, 1.42, 2.87, 1.89, 3.05 for 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 12 and 16 year old palms, respectively. Results showed that the PCA LAI values were overestimated for immature palms but underestimated for mature palms. The PCA LAI values were overestimated by 30.8-153% for 2 to 3-year old palms and underestimated by 24-52% for beyond 6-year old palms as compared to manual measurement. The relationship between palm age and LAI was also established in this study. A strong linear relationship between direct LAI and palm age was observed with a correlation coefficient, R = 0.90. However, the relationship between PCA LAI and palm age was weak and not significant. A relationship was observed between PCA LAI and direct LAI with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.57. The study shows that it was possible to rapidly determine LAI using the LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser. This rapid and non-destructive method saves labour when compared to manual measurements. However, this instrument gave inconsistent of LAI values in respect to oil palm age.
  W.I. Wan Ishak , M.A. Awal and R. Elango
  This study was carried out to create a new method of transplanting for various types of vegetables. An automated transplanter has been designed, developed and tested to be integrated with the main Gantry System in a greenhouse. The method was used by using the latest concepts using the jiffy peat pot (biodegradable). A Cartesian Configuration was used for the seed transplanter movement system which operates in a 3-axis format. The Auto CAD 2002 software was used to develop a 3D concept design of the proposed transplanter. The transplanter used electricity as its power supply. This machine consisted of a quick attach 3 point hitch, an X-axis module, a Z-axis module, an auger, a pot tray, a gripper and a watering unit. The transplanter operated automatically using a Graphical User Interface developed by Visual Basic 6.0 software. A stepper motor and a DC motor were used to drive the axes module. It was configured to integrate with the control system software which was developed by using FP WIN GR software and then downloaded to the Nais FP2 PLC, as hardware of the system.
  M.A. Awal and W.I. Wan Ishak
  .
  M.A. Awal and Farzana Sultana
  An experiment was carried out in the Crop Botany Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to find out the effect of indigenous mulches viz. rice straw, ash and sawdust on the microclimate, growth and yield of mustard crop cv. Shafol (Brassica campestris var. Yellow Sarson) during the winter season extended from November 2008 to February 2009. As compared to ash mulch and control (i.e. no mulch), the straw and sawdust mulches decreased the temperature but increased the moisture content of the soil. The mustard crop grown with sawdust mulch showed better performances for most of the parameters like shoot height, number of primary branches/plant, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield components and yield. The sawdust mulched crop produced (1.54 t ha-1) about 35 and 20% higher seed yield than the crops grown with straw mulch (1.00 t ha-1) or no mulch (1.24 t ha-1). A heavy mulch cover like rice straw is unsuitable for mustard cultivation because the seedlings are so soft and succulent that many plantlets could not emerge out successfully by penetrating up through the straw mulch cover thus fail to establish as good crop stands. In contrast, the loose or powdery mulch like sawdust is proved to be beneficial for establishing good crop stands with higher production of mustard.
  M.M. Rahman , M.A. Awal , A. Amin and M.R. Parvej
  An experiment was conducted to analyse the interspecies compatibility and production potentials of mustard and lentil in intercrop association. The experiment comprised four planting systems viz., sole mustard, sole lentil, single row (1:1 i.e., one row of mustard followed by one row of lentil) and double row (1:2 i.e., one row of mustard followed by two rows of lentil) intercropping. The stands height and number of branches (primary and secondary) per plant were maximum and minimum in sole and single row intercropped plants, respectively. Higher leaf area index and total dry matter production was observed in sole cropped mustard or lentil while those were lower in 1:2 intercropped mustard or 1:1 intercropped lentil plants. Maximum seed yield, 1.26 t ha-1 (or 1.30 t ha-1) was harvested from sole crop of mustard (or lentil) which was about 40 and 48% (or 34 and 12%) higher than that of the mustard (or lentil) yield obtained from single and double row intercrop mixtures, respectively. Combined seed yield from double row mixture was the maximum (1.8 t ha-1) and was respectively 11, 30 or 28% higher than that obtained from single row intercropped stands, sole mustard or lentil. Single and double row intercropping systems respectively resulted 25 or 41% increase in land equivalent ratios. Area time equivalency ratio was also increased by about 14 and 31%, respectively for single and double row intercropping systems. The competitive ratio of each population is approached to be unity in both intercropping systems reflecting the proper balance of the natural resources between associated species resulted better yield. The results suggest that mustard and lentil populations are well compatible in intercrop association and 1:2 row ratio mixture would be better for their profitable production.
  M.S. Islam , M.A. Awal , M. Mostofa , F. Begum , A. Khair and M. Myenuddin
  The present study was undertaken for the effect of spirulina on biochemical parameters and reduction of tissue arsenic concentration in arsenic induced toxicities in ducks. One hundred and seventy 5 ducklings were divided into five equal groups separately. One group (T0) of ducklings was kept as control. One group (T1) of ducklings were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L drinking water and rest three groups of ducklings (T2, T3 and T4) were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L plus spirulina in three different doses i.e. 30, 60 and 120 mg/L in drinking water daily for 90 days starting from day 15. Five birds were sacrificed from each group in every 15 day intervals and biochemical parameters were determined. All the biochemical parameters (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, LDH and ACP) were significantly (p<0.01) elevated in arsenic treated groups. However, the elevation of these parameters was less in arsenic plus spirulina treated groups (T2, T3 and T4). The distribution of arsenic concentration was highest in liver and lowest in faeces. Maximum reduction of arsenic was recorded in all organs following highest doses of spirulina (120 mg/L). The present study reveals that spirulina may be helpful for reducing the tissue burden of arsenic in ducks.
  M.S. Islam , M.A. Awal , M. Mostofa , F. Begum , A. Khair and M. Myenuddin
  The present study, was undertaken for the effect of spirulina on toxic signs, body weight and hematological parameters in arsenic induced toxicities in ducks. One hundred and 75 ducklings were divided into 5 equal groups separately. One group (T0) of ducklings was kept as control. One group (T1) of ducklings were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L drinking water and rest three groups of ducklings (T2, T3 and T4) were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L plus spirulina in three different doses i.e. 30, 60 and 120 mg/L in drinking water daily for 90 days starting from day 15. Five birds were sacrificed from each group in every 15 day intervals and toxic signs, body weight and hematological parameters were recorded. Ducks of T1 group (only arsenic trioxide) showed depression, reduced feed intake, dullness and ruffled feathers which were in mild in nature in other groups i.e. arsenic plus spirulina. In arsenic treated groups (T1) the not gained body weight was maximum (14.93%), whereas in arsenic plus spirulina treated groups (T2, T3 and T4) the not gained body weight in ducks (4.08-11.26%) were better than only arsenic treated groups. Reduction of TEC, Hb and PCV values and rise of ESR values were significant (P<0.01) in T1 (arsenic treated) groups. However, in arsenic plus spirulina treated rest groups reduction of TEC, Hb and PCV were less than arsenic treated groups. The present study reveals that spirulina may be helpful for reducing the body burden of arsenic in ducks.
  M.A. Awal , Ainun Nahar , M. Shamim Hossain , M.A. Bari , M. Rahman and M.E. Haque
  Present study assayed the toxicity effect of ethanolic leaf and seed extract of Cassia alata and found promising activity. From the probit transformation of resulting mortality data we got LC50 values of 4.31 ppm (μg mL-1) for seed and 5.29 ppm for leaf extract. Seed extract explored potent cytotoxicity similar to the standard gallic acid (LC50 = 4.53 ppm). From the antibacterial and MIC data it was evident that seed extract gave least activity against the tested bacteria whereas leaf extract deserved promising antibacterial activity.
  M.A. Awal and M.A.H. Khan
  Mulching effects of sawdust, ash, rice straw and water hyacinth on the morpho-physiological differentation of maize (Zea mays L.) and to relate these with soil environment were described. Water hyacinth and rice straw mulches had significant promotive effects on shoot elongation, root penetration, LAI and DM accumulation. All mulches conserved soil moisture but water hyacinth and rice straw retained comparatively greater amount. Water hyacinth and rice straw mulches reduced soil temperature fluctuations in all soil depths (5 to 15 cm) and retained higher soil temperatures at the early hours of the day (02 to 06 hrs) which were considered to be the decisive factor for the rapid development of maize plants. Sawdust mulch due to the lower soil temperature had retardive effects on all morpho-physiological attributes. Ash mulch ranked intermediate between the rice straw or water hyacinth and the control.
  M.A. Awal , M.E. Haque and M.F. Imam
  The study estimates the growth rates of frozen food, shrimp and fish export and instability of export earnings. The study evaluates the export marketing of frozen food, shrimp and fish by using time series aggregated data from the year of 1972-73 to 2003-04. The growths of frozen food were 57, 4 and 9% during period I, II and III, respectively. The export growth rate of shrimp was 54% in period I and 14 and 10% in the period II and III, respectively. The overall estimated shrimp export growth was 22%. The growth rates of fish export earning during period I, II and III were 6, 6 and 7%, respectively. The negative fluctuations in frozen food were more deep during 1974-75 (-67%), 977-78 (19%) and 1980-81(14%). The large positive deviations were observed during 2002-03 (52%), 973-74 (28%) and 1978-79 (13%). The negative fluctuation of shrimp export earnings more deep during 1974-75 (-65%), 977-78 (-20%) and 2001-02 (-14%) and positive deviations were in 2002-03 (53%), 973-74 (25), 976-77 and 2000-01 (15%) and 1978-79 (13%). The positive fluctuations of fish export earnings were in 1973-74 (64%), 985-86 (61%) and 1975-76 (54%) and negative fluctuations in the year 1976-77 (-85%), 984-85 (-46%) and 2001-02(-27%). The contribution of shrimp sector to our total export earnings was 5% in 2003-04 and insignificant share of only 0.84% in the year 1972-73. It was revealed that the present circumstances of this sector demands different institutional supports desperately from different angles to enhance the marketing activities and to strengthen the competitive position in the international market with a view to ensuring more contribution to our economy from the aforementioned.
  M.K. Islam , M.A. Awal , S.U. Ahmed and M.A. Baten
  Influence of two set sizes viz. 1.6 and 2.44 g/set, three plant spacings viz. 20cm x 10cm, 20cm x 15cm and 20cm x 20 cm and four doses of N viz. 0, 60,120 and 180 kg/ha on the growth and bulb yield of onion was studied. Larger set produced the highest bulb yield (22.6 t/ha) over smaller one (19.9 t/ha) . Smaller set gave more number of single bulbs and took shorter growing period. The closest spacing produced the maximum number of single bulbs (31.6%) and the highest bulb yield (23.7 t/ha). N at zero level gave the highest number of single bulbs. N at 120 kg/ha produced the maximum bulb yield (28.5 t/ha), but N at 180 kg/ha gave the highest plant height and required the longest growing period. Interaction effects of all possible combinations caused significant variation on bulb yield and related components. Larger set with the closest spacing gave the highest bulb yield (25.6 t/ha). Smaller set with nitrogen at zero level produced the maximum number of single bulbs. The closest spacing with 120 N/ha gave the highest bulb yield (31.6 t/ha). Maximum bulb yield (33.7 t/ha) was recorded from the combination of larger set x closest spacing x 120 kg N/ha. Smaller set 'x closest spacing x zero level N produced the highest number of single bulbs.
  S. Ahmad , S.R. Saha , M. Nazim Uddin , S.S. Choudhury , M.A. Awal and M.A. Salam
  A comparative study of ten cauliflower cultivars was done at the Regional Agricultural Research Station of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Hathazari, Chittagong during the period from September, 1995 to January, 1996. It appeared that the time needed for reaching the optimum harvesting stage varied from 95 days in case of cv. Kartika and Tropical 45 days and 110 days in case of cv. Shiroyama-65 from the date of sowing. Maximum and minimum curd yields were obtained from the cv. Shiroyama-65 and cv. Poushali which were 18.38 and 6.4 tons ha-1, respectively.
  M.A. Hossain , M.R. Akanda , M. Mostofa and M.A. Awal
  Background: Lead (Pb) is one of the toxic substances equally important like other toxic heavy metals. Lead (Pb) has extensive commercial and industrial use despite of public health hazard. Therefore, the work reported here was conducted to detect the therapeutic application of garlic (Allium sativum) on hematological parameters in lead-induced broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifty commercial broiler chickens were grouped into 5 such as T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4 consisting of 70 birds each where T0 served as control. T1 was provided with lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1 b.wt., T2 had 100 mg kg-1 lead acetate+1% garlic supplement, T3 was fed with 100 mg kg-1 lead acetate+2% garlic supplement and T4 had 100 mg kg-1 lead acetate+4% garlic supplement with the aim to determine the hematological changes in lead exposed chickens. Results: The analysis of variance in different groups were statistically significant (p<0.01). The mean values of erythrocyte, Hb and PCV values significantly reduced from 2.217±0.020-2.062±0.047, 7.697±0.247-6.172±0.198 and 25.183±0.8122-23.532±1.001, respectively in group T1. The ameliorating effects of garlic in heavy metal lead (Pb) revealed most significant (p<0.01) increased erythrocyte, hemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) values from 2.16±0.034-2.46±0.077, 8.362±0.262-10.44±0.26 and 23.64±0.90-30.68±0.75 in group T3, respectively. Similarly Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were also resulted increased mean values from 121.12±5.28-131.50±3.72, 38.83±1.38-47.86±1.76 and 14.03±0.89-17.55±1.03, respectively in group (T3). Present study also revealed the increased values of leukocytes that might be attributed to the inflammatory process of leukocytes caused by lead (Pb). Significantly (p<0.01) decreased values of leukocytes were observed in group T3 compared to group T2 and T4 due to the ameliorative action of garlic in lead exposed chickens. Garlic in lead (Pb) exposed chickens could be considered as a potent inhibitor of lymphocytic proliferation that was evident in the present study by matured numbers of leukocytes. Conclusion: The consumption of certain percentages of garlic indicated that it might be capable of enhancing elimination of toxic effects on hematological changes in lead exposed chickens.
 
 
 
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