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Articles by M.M. Rahman
Total Records ( 61 ) for M.M. Rahman
  M.M. Rahman , M.N. Amin and R. Ahmed
  In the present study an efficient tissue culture method for high rate of shoot regeneration was developed for Elaeocarpus robustus. Cotyledonary explants with and without petiolar end were cultured in ½ MS medium supplemented with auxin and cytokinin. Explant with the petiolar/proximal end showed a better response than those without it in respect of shoot initiation. Half strength of MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 BA+0.5 mg l-1 2,4-D was found to be best for producing organogenic callus. The best shoot proliferation was observed when cotyledon-derived callus was subcultured in medium fortified with a combination of 1.0 mg l-1 BA+0.5 mg l-1 Kn+0.1 mg l-1 NAA. In vitro elongated shoots were rooted with 80% success by treating them ½ in MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg l-1 IBA and incubated under 30°C in dark for initial one week. Rooted shoots (plantlets) were successfully established into soil and the survival rate of the plantlets was about 55%.
  K.L. Hossain , M.M. Rahman , M.A. Banu , T.R. Khan and M.S. Ali
  This research paper attempts to investigate the performance of Asparagus racemosus grown by the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen fertilizer at the Germplasm Centre (GPC) of the Fruit Tree Improvement Program (FTIP), Department of Horticulture, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during February to October, 2005. The treatments consisted of prilled urea and super granule urea at 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 concentrations. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The number, length, diameter and both fresh and dry weight of tuberous roots were found higher with super granule urea than that of prilled urea. Root protein content was found to be 25.20% higher in super granule urea treated plants compared to prilled urea. The rates of nitrogen also had a significant effect on plant height, leaves number and number, length, diameter and both fresh and dry weight of tuberous roots when compared to 0 kg N kg ha-1 to the rest of the rates. Root protein content was 21.87, 12.5 and 14.06% higher than the control at the 100, 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 concentrations, respectively. Therefore, application of 100 kg N ha-1 as super granule urea was found to be sufficient for the sustainable production of tuberous roots of Asparagus.
  R.S. Sultana , M.A. Bari , M.H. Rahman , M.M. Rahman , N.A. Siddique and N. Khatun
  Plantlets regeneration were achieved in callus culture of leaf segments from five days old field grown seedlings of Citrulus lanatus Thumb. Callus induction and plant regeneration at various frequencies were observed using different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. The highest percentage of callus induction was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg L-1 2, 4-D. After transfer of this callus on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA+0.2 mg L-1 NAA induce adventitious shoots and developed into plant by further subculture in the same medium. NAA (0.1 mg L-1) was found effective in the production of root. Plantlets were acclimatized and subsequently transferred to the field. Survival of the plantlets under ex vitro condition was 80%.
  S.M.L. Kabir , M.M. Rahman , M.B. Rahman , M.Z. Hosain , M.S.I. Akand and S.K. Das
  The present research was conducted on Hubbard Isa Starbro broilers to evaluate the dynamics of probiotics relating to balanced growth of intestinal flora and histological reactions and changes within the crop and cecal tissues. A total of eighty day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups of equal numbers as group A (Probiotics fed group vaccinated), B (Probiotics fed group nonvaccinated), C (Conventional fed group vaccinated) and D (Conventional fed group nonvaccinated). Group C and D were taken as control birds fed with commercial ration and groups A and B as experimental birds were fed with commercial ration with the addition of 2 g probiotics (Protexin® Boost)/10 L drinking water upto 6th week of age. The effect of probiotics with regard to clearing bacterial infections and regulating intestinal flora was evaluated by determining the TVC and TLC of the crop and cecum samples of probiotics and conventional fed groups at the 2nd, 4th and 6th week of age. The result revealed competitive antagonism. The result of the study evidenced that probiotic organisms inhibited some nonbeneficial pathogens by occupying intestinal wall space. It has been demonstrated that broilers fed with probiotics had a tendency to display pronounced intestinal histological changes such as active impetus in cell mitosis and increased nuclear size of cells, than the controls. It is obviously found from this research work that probiotics supplementation promoted significant influence on intestinal microbial balance related with pronounced intestinal histological changes.
  M.N. Amin , M.M. Rahman , K.W. Rahman , R. Ahmed , M.S. Hossain and M.B. Ahmed
  The leaf base explants from the in vitro established shoot cultures were induced to form callus and subsequently to differentiate into shoots on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinins and auxins. The cultured explants produced calli from their cut margins within four weeks of incubation on media supplemented with 0.5-3.0 mg L-1 2,4-D alone and in combination with 0.5-3.0 mg L-1 BA. Maximum number of shoot buds with optimum callus growth was observed on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 BA and 0.1 mg L-1 NAA after six weeks of culture. Rooting was induced in the in vitro regenerated shoots on 2 MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of NAA, IBA or IAA. Rooting performance was best when the microshoots were rooted on 2 MS medium containing 0.2 mg L-1 IBA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA. The regenerated plantlets were successfully transferred to soil and percentage of their survivability under ex vitro condition was almost ninety.
  M.S. Islam , N.S. Lucky , M.R. Islam , A. Ahad , B.R. Das , M.M. Rahman and M.S.I. Siddiui
  An experiment was conducted to study the hematological parameters in Fayoumi, Assil and Local Chickens of different ages reared in Sylhet region. 250 chickens of three breeds (100 Fayoumi, 50 Assil and 100 Local) were tested at different ages (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) to observe the hematological parameters: i) Total erythrocyte Count (TEC) ii) Packed Cell Volume (PCV) iii) Determination of Hemoglobin (Hb) iv) Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) v) Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) vi) Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) vii) Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) viii) Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC). Erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume increased with the advancement of age in all three breeds. The TEC was higher in Fayoumi. The hemoglobin concentration was high in Assil. The PCV was slightly different or similar in all three breeds. ESR was inversely related to the age. Higher ESR in early age and lower in the advancement of age. The Fayoumi showed the higher ESR compared to other two breeds. The ESR of last two groups (9 and 12 months) of Assil and all groups of Local Chickens were negligible. Lymphocytes and heterophils were two principal leukocytes, which exert their dominance on other leukocytes. Among three breeds Local chickens possess the higher lymphocyte percentage. The heterophils were higher in Fayoumi breed. Monocyte was lower in Assil and Local chickens. Eosinophils were higher in number in local and Assil compared to Fayoumi. Higher MCV was recorded in Local chickens followed by Assil and Fayoumi chickens. MCH values were near about similar in Assil and local chicken but lower in Fayoumi breeds. The MCHC values of all three breeds were almost nearer to each other. The above study has highlighted some of the normal hematological parameters of chicken mostly reared in Sylhet region. However, more detailed study could be conducted in this regards.
  M.M. Rahman , M.A. Islam , M.Y. Ali , M.E.A. Khondaker and M.M. Hossain
  A total of 21 four weeks old Nara males divided into 3 groups as A-non-caponized, B-chemically and C-surgically caponized birds having 7 males each. The birds were caponized at 4 weeks of age and reared on individual cages up to 16 weeks of age to assess the body weight gain, hematological traits and blood cholesterol concentration. The weight gain was significantly increased in caponized birds compared to non-caponized birds (p<0.01). However, surgically caponized birds gained the highest body weight. Total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration were significantly reduced in caponized birds compared to non-caponized birds (p<0.01). Testis weight of group A and B at 16 weeks of age were 19.20 and 2.58 g/bird respectively. The highest enlargement of liver and spleen was found in group-C followed by group-A and B. Adrenal gland weight of A, B and C were 0.14, 0.21 and 0.26g/bird respectively (p<0.01). Reduced comb, wattle and head of caponized birds were observed compared to the non-caponized birds. Caponization is the most suitable technique to have maximum meat from chicken. However, surgically caponization may be the best technique for maximum growth.
  S.M.L. Kabir , M.M. Rahman , M.B. Rahman , M.M. Rahman and S.U. Ahmed
  The research work was conducted on "Hubbard Isa Starbro" broilers to evaluate the dynamics of probiotics relating to live weight gain, carcass yield, weight of cut up meat parts and immune response. Day old broiler chicks were divided into four groups as group A (Vaccinated probiotics fed group), B (Nonvaccinated probiotics fed group), C (Vaccinated conventional fed group) and D (Nonvaccinated conventional fed group). Groups C and D were taken as control birds fed with commercial ration and groups A and B as experimental birds were fed with commercial ration with the addition of 2gm probiotics (Protexin® Boost)/10 litres drinking water upto 6th week of age. The result evidenced the following information: (a) The live weight gains obtained were significantly (p<0.01) higher in experimental birds as compared to control ones at all levels during the period of 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th weeks of age, both in vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. (b) A significantly (p<0.01) higher carcass yield occurred in broiler chicks fed with the probiotics on the 2nd, 4th and 6th week of age both in vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. The weight of leg was found significantly (p<0.01) greater for experimental birds as compared to control ones on the 2nd, 4th and 6th week of age. A significantly (p<0.01) higher breast weight in broiler chicks fed with the probiotics was observed on the 4th and 6th week of age. Analogously a significantly (p<0.05) higher breast portion weight was found in experimental birds as compared to control ones during 2nd week of age. (c) The antibody production was found significantly (p<0.01) higher in experimental birds as compared to control ones. Significant differences were also observed in the weight of spleen and bursa due to probiotics supplementation. The results of the study thus revealed that probiotics supplementation promoted significant influence on live weight gain, high carcass yield, prominent cut up meat parts and immune response.
  M.B. Rahman , M.M. Rahman , M. Rahman , S.M.L. Kabir , K.H.M.N.H. Nazir and M.M. Amin
  Thirty day-old chicks of Cobb-100 breed with the history of vaccination of parent stock against Newcastle disease (ND) were equally divided into two groups such as group A and B. At 7 days of age of birds, group A was vaccinated with experimentally prepared V4HR-ND vaccine via eye drop @ 106.0EID50/bird to determine the efficacy of this vaccine while group B was kept as unvaccinated control. The birds were used for the study during the period from October 2003 to December 2003. Each bird of group A was boostered with same vaccine @ same dose at 24 days of age. Both the groups (A and B) were challenged after two weeks of post-booster vaccination with 0.25ml inoculum containing 105.0EID50 of virulent field isolates of ND virus intramuscularly. The results of challenge experiment revealed that six birds (40%) of group A succumbed within 3 to 4 days of post-challenge, whereas 15 (100%) unvaccinated control birds of group B showed clinical illness and ultimately died within 3 to 5 days. Thus, the experimental V4HR-ND vaccine conferred 60% protection of vaccinated birds against challenge infection. The mean values of Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres of birds in group A were found to have significantly (P<0.01) increased at two weeks of post-booster vaccination. These results indicated that experimental V4HR-ND vaccine induced sufficient humoral immune response which gives satisfactory level of protection against ND.
  M.A. Islam , M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam and M.M. Khatun
  An attempt was undertaken for molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field isolates. In order to isolate the virus, bursae of thirty five dead chicken with clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. Isolation of field strain of IBDV was carried out in chickens of 5-week-old. Five IBDV isolates were obtained from chicken inoculation. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was preformed to detect IBDV isolates in the bursal tissues. RT-PCR couple with restriction enzyme (RE) analysis was carried out for molecular characterization of IBDV isolates to determine the pathotype. 677 bp fragments from IBDV genome segment A corresponding to the hyper variable domain of outer capsid protein VP2 was amplified by RT-PCR. Two restriction endonuclease (REs), SspI and SacI were used for digestion of RT-PCR products. RT-PCR product was digested by SspI but not SacI. The presence of SspI restriction site in the 677 bp RT-PCR fragment indicated that IBDV isolates belonging to very virulent (vv) pathotype.
  S.K. Sarkar , M.B. Rahman , M. Rahman , K.M.R. Amin , M.F.R. Khan and M.M. Rahman
  The sero-prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection of chickens in selected Model Breeder Poultry Farms was determined during the period January to May, 2004. To conduct this study a total of 382 sera samples were collected. Rapid Serum Plate Agglutination (SPA) test was performed using commercial MG antigen (NobilisĀ® MG) to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. The over all sero-prevalence of MG infection was 58.90% in the study area. The highest prevalence (62.44 %) of MG infection was found in winter season followed by summer season (53.10%). The result further revealed that the infection was higher (59.94%) in female birds than in male birds (48.57%). It was also demonstrated that the infection was higher (62.80%) in Feni sadar than in Chhagoalnaiya thana (53.45%).
  A.J. Sikder , M.A. Islam , M.M. Rahman and M.B. Rahman
  The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection in six model breeder poultry farms (MBPFs) located at kalapara Upazilla under Patuakhali district, Bangladesh. A total of 364 sera samples were collected from chickens belonging to six MBPFs. All sera samples were examined by rapid serum plate agglutination (SPA) test using commercial Salmonella (SP) and MG antigens to determine the presence of Salmonella and MG specific antibodies in different age and sex of birds belonging to MBPFs. In addition to that prevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in MBPFs during rainy and winter seasons were also recorded. The results of serological tests were analyzed statistically. The overall prevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in six MBPFs were recorded as 23.46% and 46.88% respectively. Prevalence of salmonella was recorded highest in rainy season (25.00%) than the winter season (21.88). On the contrary, Mycoplasma infection was recorded highest in winter season (61.45%) than the rainy season (51.74%). Both Salmonella and Mycoplasma infections were recorded highest in female birds (24.10%) than the male birds (15.62%). The prevalence of MG infection decreased with the increase of age. MG infection recorded highest 71.42% at 18 weeks of age and lowest 50% at 22 weeks of age. On the other hand, the prevalence Salmonella infection was increased with the increase age. Salmonella infection was found highest 30.76% at 39 weeks of age and lowest 13.33% at 32 weeks of age. It was concluded from the present study that both Salmonella and MG infection were significantly present in all six MBPFs and SPA test could be used as a tool for quick detection of Salmonella and MG infection.
  G.M. Nooruddin , M.T. Hossain , M. Mohammad and M.M. Rahman
  Sero-epidemiological investigation was carried out to determine avian influenza virus in native chickens at Dagonbhuyian, Feni district in Bangladesh. A total of 224 sera samples were collected from the chickens of key beneficiaries during monsoon, winter and summer seasons. All sera samples were examined for the detection of antibodies of Avian influenza virus by indirect enzyme linked Immunosorbant assay using commercially available Kits. The seroprevalence was found 25% in Ram Nagar union, 14.28% Matubhuyian union, 0% in Rajapur union and 0% Jaylashker union. The overall seroprevalence of avian influenza was recorded 9.82%. Sero-epidemiology of virus in relation to seasonal variation was also carried out in the study areas and it was recorded 14.45% during monsoon, 3.70% during winter and 11.67% during summer season. The investigation exhibited higher prevalence of avian influenza in hens (10.83%) than cocks (8.65%). The investigation revealed the highest (12.80%) prevalence in birds > 34 weeks of age group and the lowest (3.13%) in birds of 8-16 weeks of age. However, Quick antigen detection kit for avian influenza virus identification did not show positive results of the samples collected for virological study.
  M. Nasimul Gani , A.K.M. Maqsudul Alam , M.R. Islam , M.M. Rahman , M. Nuruzzaman and Shafi Iqbal
  A field study was carried out with three fibre crop varieties to estimate the bulk organic materials produced by each variety and soil nutrient status due to their incorporation into soil. Considerable amount of plant biomaterials were produced by all varieties viz., CVL-1(6.4t ha-1), O-9897(7.56t ha-1) and HC-95(9.02t ha-1). Plant biomaterials of each variety enriched the soil nutrient status over the initial value. Highest nutrient status (OC-1.7%, OM-2.95%, N-0.58%, P-23ppm, K-0.79meq/100) was found for variety HC-95. The highest percent increments of these nutrients over the initial nutrient of soil(INS) and not allowed to decompose the plant biomaterial in soil (NBM) [OC over INS (211%), NBM (159%); N over INS (190%), NBM (81%); K over INS (93%), NBM (72%)] were found with variety HC-95. The highest P(28%) was obtained with O-9897 where percent increment of P over INS and NBM was 115%. In production of biomaterials and enrichment of soil, Kenaf performed better than Jute varieties. The cultivation of jute and Kenaf may be an exceptional source of organic materials which may save the depleted soil of Bangladesh without using external organic matter.
  Md. Abdullah Baki , Nadira Akhtar , M.M. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Mosharrof Hossain , N. Islam , M. Khursed Alam , R. Islam , N.A. Khatun and KAMSH Mondal
  Synergistic effect of W. calendulacea plant extract combined with Lamda cyhalothrin were demonstrated against red flour beetle T. castaneum in methanol extract. W. calendulacea plant extract offered synergistic action when used Lamda cyhalothrin. It was noted that plant extract indicates synergistic action from 1:1 to 1:5 ratio and above.
  B.C. Basak , M.A. Awal , Q. Hasan , M.M. Rahman , M.A. Jalil and M.A.Q. Miah
  A research work was undertaken following oral doses of doxycycline and calcium with feed for 35 days from January to March, 2002, to study the adverse effect, hematological parameters, serum calcium level and post mortem changes in five groups (A, B, C, D and E) of Swiss albino mice (n=25). Among these groups of mice group A was kept as control. Group B was treated only with doxycycline @ 500 mg kg-1 feed but groups C, D and E was given calcium @ 400 mg, 800 mg & 1200 mg kg-1 feed respectively in addition to doxycycline @ 500 mg kg-1 feed. All the treated groups of mice showed clinical signs like roughness of the body, depression, anorexia, weakness, staggering gait, recumbency at latter stage of the study period but these clinical signs were mild in calcium supplemented groups of mice. No visible adverse effect found in the offspring of any group of mice. Administration of doxycycline resulted significant decrease in total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin content (Hb%), percentage of neutrophil count & serum calcium level in all treated mice but calcium supplementation gradually improved these results in groups C, D & E respectively. Following post mortem examination, all the visceral organs were found to be highly congested and blood was blackish in colour in group B whereas mild or no congestion was found in calcium supplemented group, i.e., groups C, D & E. From the findings of the present study it may be concluded that long term administration of doxycycline results adverse effects as well as decrease serum calcium level. So, when doxycycline is to be administered for long period of time supplementation of calcium should be considered simultaneously.
  M.A. Jalil , M.M. Rahman , S.M.H. Rashid , M.R.I. Akanda , M.M. Rahman and M.R.R. Sarker
  The effect of Dicalcium phosphate (D.C.P) and Vit-D with ready Commercial feed on hemato-biochemical parameters and growth performance was studied in day old broiler chicks (Vencob strain) to 35-day-old broiler birds during the period from November 7 to December 12, 2002 (For 35 days). These chicks were divided into 4 groups viz. A (n=5), B(n=5) C, (n=5) and D(n=5). Birds of group A was the control group, supplied commercial feed (C.F), group B,C,D were supplied 98% C.F+2%D.C.P,C.F+vitD,(AD capsule was fed as source of vit-D & A=408IU/drop, D=40.8IU/drop i,e 1 drop vit-AD containing the above dose and also fed I drop to each bird everyday) and 98% C.F+2%D.C.P+vit-D. The group D was the reated and target group. The hematological parameters (TE.C, Hb, PCV, ESR, DLC) and weight were determined every 7 days and the Biochemical parameters (serum-ca level and serum P-level) were estimated at day 21, day 28 and day 35. There was no remarkable change in hematological parametcrs but highly weight gained in the treated and target group (Group-D) in each experimental day shown in the Table. At day 21 and day 28, hematological parameters were within normal range shown in the table but serum-calcium and phosphorus level in group B and D were increased. The serum Ca & P level were highly as it was treated with D.C.P. On the other hand due to supplement of D.C.P & vit-D helped in bone metabolism, development of bone and marked weight gained in broiler chicks of group-D. Serum-Ca and serum-P was also within normal range in group-D shown in table Body weight increased in group-D due to supplementation of D.C.P and Vit-D which helped Ca & P absorption from the gut of the broiler chicks and thereby body weight gained also determined the hematological and biochemical values. But the values differed from the values of my research work as their work was differ from my research work. There highly weight gained comparatively in target and treated group-D in day 35 than day 21 and other days. In group-D, due to supplement of D.C.P and vit-D, Ca and P were absorbed from the gut of the birds by the help of vit-D and influence of PTH (parathyroid hormone) resulting proper bone development and weight gain.
  M.S. Islam , M.A. Mazed , M.M. Rahman , M. A. Islam and M.A. Kadir
  The study was conducted at two dairy farms namely, Government Dairy Farm, Faridpur and Cntral Cattle Breeding Station, Savar, Dhaka to investigate the effect of milk yield, lactation length and disease incidence on Local X Friesian upgraded dairy cows. From the study, it was reveled that the average milk production per lactation per cow was 1820.75, 1861.00, 1871.00 and 1890 liters for first, second, third and fourth lactation, respectively. There was an increasing tendency in milk yield from first lactation to fourth lactation. Average lactation length of respective cows were 335.50?29.26, 333.12?29.97, 325.87?19.91 and 323.87?13.75 days for first, second, third and fourth lactation, respectively. In case of disease incidence the experimental cows were infected by Foot and Mouth Disease, Black Quater and ephemeral fever. In conclusion, it can be said that Local X Friesian cows are reared successfully allover Bangladesh.
  S. Begum , M.M. Rahman , M.J. Abedin Mian , M.R. Islam and M. Uddin
  An investigation was undertaken to see the effect of added nitrogen supplied from poultry manure and urea-N on the growth, yield and nutrient uptake of BRRI Dhan 29 rice. There were eight treatments consisting of T0 (control), T1 (N100), T2 (PM5.0), T3 (N75 + PM1.25), T4 (N50 + PM2.5), T5 (N25 + PM3.75), T6 (PM7.5) and T7 (N120). Application of poultry manure alone or in combination with urea-N significantly increased the plant height, number of effective tillers hill-1, panicle length, number of grains panicle-1 and filled grains panicle-1 whereas 1000-grain weight varied insignificantly. The grain and straw yields increased significantly with different treatments and the highest yield was obtained with T6 treatment which was statistically at par with T5. The NPKS uptake was positively influenced by different treatments. Poultry manure was found the best source of N for rice. Application of poultry manure considerably increased the organic matter content, total N, available P, exchangeable K, available S and CEC of the post harvest soil and thus improved soil health.
  M.M. Rahman and M. N. Haque
  Data in five parities of native cows were evaluated for per day milk yield, lactation length, birth weight of calves, post partum heat period, period of calving to conception, gestation length, calving interval and number of service per conception (nos.). Per day milk yield ranged from 2.23+0.48 to 2.62+0.43 liters in different parities. Likewise, lactation length and birth weight of calves ranged from 230.58+69.51 to 266.96+78.91 days and 20.44+3.15 to 21.88+3.19 kg, respectively among different parities. Post partum heat period and period of calving to conception ranged from 133.40+52.61 to 158.68+107.50 days and 162.16+72.49 to 212.88+125.50 days, respectively in different parities. Amongst the parity differences post partum heat period and period of calving to conception were not found to be significant. The mean gestation period during the fifth parity was shorter (p<0.05) than the first and second parities (274.50 vs 279.36 and 279.08 days, respectively). Calving interval and number of service per conception ranged from 445.44+75.04 to 487.40+130.36 days and 1.48+0.77 to 1.88+0.10 numbers, respectively over the parities. But there was no difference on the parameters like calving interval and number of service per conception over the parities.
  M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam , M.N. Ullah and F.M.M. Adeyl
  Information of broiler farms, adoption of scientific knowledge and managemental skill of broiler farmers were collected. Data were collected through personal interview from 140 farmers at 6 thana`s of Rajshahi district. In this study, 45.3% large, 30.7% medium, 12.5% small, 7.0% marginal and 4.5% landless farmers were involved in commercial broiler farming programme. In case of educational level, about half of the farmers (47.30%) had above secondary, 36.0% had secondary, 12.2% had primary and rest of the farmers (4.5%) had no educational qualification. In case of feed use, percentage of self-preparation and ready made feed were 60.0 and 40.0% respectively. In vaccination, 70.0% broiler farmers vaccinated their birds regularly and 30.0% farmers vaccinated their birds irregularly. In case of floor management system, 80.7% farmers used deep litter system with sow dust or rice husk and rest 19.3% farmers used slate system. About 54.5% farmers did not have any training on broiler farming, whereas only 45.5% farmers had taken training on broiler farming, 71.43% of the respondents had high level of knowledge, 24.29% in medium and only a few respondents (4.28%) possessed very poor knowledge about broiler farming. On the other hand, 37.86% of the broiler farmers had high level of managemental skill based scientific knowledge. However, 52.85% respondents possessed medium managemental skill and a few of them (9.29%) never cared about the skilled management. So this indicates that broiler farmers need to be trained in routine management aspects.
  M.A. Baset , M.M. Rahman , M.S. Islam , A. Ara and A.S.M. Kabir
  A large number of farmers involved in bull fattening just before 3 or 4 months of Eid-Ul-Azha (Muslim festival), when they sell the animals with profitable prices. Cattle fattening for beef production have become an important business of the small farmers in Bangladesh. In few areas of Bangladesh a small scale commercial beef fattening program has already been started. Straw is the important crop residue; contribute the major portion of the fibrous part of the diet of the beef cattle. Rice straw is the basal feed for ruminants with low nutritive value and low digestibility. Farmers use rice straw of traditional varieties, green grass, sugarcane tops, wheat and rice bran, molasses, pulse bran and locally available resources such as pumpkin, carrot, banana, vegetable by products, rice gruel, boiled rice bran, oil cakes etc for beef fattening. The chemical treatment of straw is the most effective and economic method to improving the quality. Straw is mainly treated with urea and molasses and in some cases chemical treatment also done by the farmers. Urea molasses straw treatment in beef cattle resulted higher body weight, dressing percentage and also in better carcass quality than untreated straw. The acute shortage of feeds and fodder has long been identified as a serious constraint to optimum livestock production in Bangladesh. The nutritional factor is considered a major constraint to livestock productivity. Traditional grazing field is scarce except in some pokets in Pabna and Sylhet districts. Farmers used three years old cattle for beef fattening and maximum growth rate between 1.1 to 1.4 years of age. Cattle fattening period is 4.5 months in rural areas of Bangladesh.
  S. Datta , M.M. Rahman , M.A. Haque , M.M. Islam and M.F.A. Mollah
  Colchicine(0.05%) treated tissues of day-old larvae of Ompok pabda were observed under a research microscope after hydrolysis, mordanting and staining with 10% HCl, 2% aqueous solution of iron alum and 0.5% haematoxylin for 10 minutes, 6 minutes and 10 minutes respectively. Photomicrographs were taken from critically selected plates. From the photomicrographic enlarged prints chromosome number 2n=42 was counted, of which only 18 could be measured which consisted of 10 metacentric, 7 submetacentric and 1 subtelocentric. Length of the measured chromosomes varied from 1.1 to 3.9 μ .
  M.Z. Karim , M.N. Amin , M.A.K. Azad , F. Begum , M.M. Rahman , M.M. Islam and R. Alam
  Shoot multiplication of Chrysanthemum morifolium was achieved from the nodal and shoot tip explants of mature plant using MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. Maximum frequency of explants produced axillary shoot and the highest number of shoots per explant were obtained when MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg l-1 BAP.The combination BAP+GA3 was found effective result. But Kinetin (Kn) showed low performance for producing multiple shoots. The degree of shoot formation was affected by explant types and the exogenous hormonal regime in the medium.
  M.M. Zaman , M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam , M.K. Hossain and K.A. Khan
  Feeds and fodder and the quantities fed to large ruminants (cattle and buffalo) in eight different areas of Bangladesh involving 96 farmers were recorded for a year from January 1988 to 1989. Roughage like straw naturally available seasonal green grass and weds, tree leaves, water hyacinth, legumes and sugarcane tops were the major feeds offered to the animal by a bigger proportion of farmers in the study areas. It was found that amount varied (P<0.01) from area to area. The overall consumption of straw, green grass, leaves, legumes and sugarcane tops per day and head were 1.9+2.6, 5.1+4.9, 0.3+2.0, 0.1+1.0 and 0.01+0.07 kg respectively. By product concentrates, mostly rice bran, wheat bran and different oil cakes were offered to the animals in the studied areas. However, the amounts offered also varied (P<0.01) from area to area. Consumption of as fed rice bran, wheat bran and oil cakes were 0.5+0.7, 0.03+0.1 and 0.01+0.03 kg, respectively. The means and standard deviation indicate a wide range of variations in the amounts of roughage and concentrates offered. Furthermore assignment was the not systematic due to the availability of foodstuffs, lack of knowledge of farmers and consequences of the inefficient utilization of available feed resources. In addition to feeding roughage and concentrates, farmers graded their animals 6.2 h on an average a day. Grazing also varied (P<0.01) with different areas. It is thus concluded that feeds and feeding and the assignment amount of roughage and concentrates to the large ruminants are very poor practices of large ruminants exercised in Bangladesh. The assignment amounts are however, not upto the requirement of animals. Feeding animals should be improved by exploring the unconventional feeds of those areas and also by the best management and utilization of available resources. Farmer·s knowledge about feeding practices of animals should also be improved to increase animal production in Bangladesh through proper research extension linkages.
  M.M. Rahman , M.N. Amin and S. Ahmad
  Shoot tip and nodal segments from the field grown mature plants of native-olive (Elaeocarpus robustus Roxb.) were used as explants and were cultured on half strength of MS medium supplemented with different types of growth regulators either alone or in combinations. Among the growth regulators and supplements (BA, Kn, NAA and coconut water) that were used in the proliferation medium the best result was observed on 2 MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl G 1 BA + 0.5 mgl G 1 Kn + 0.1 mgl G 1 NAA + 15% CW, which promoted multiple shoot bud formation and sufficient shoot elongation. The well-developed shoots were excised to 3-4 cm cuttings and implanted individually on root induction medium. Highest percentage of micro cuttings showed root formation when they were cultured on 2 MS medium containing 0.2 mgl G 1 IBA and incubated under 30° C in dark for initial one week. The in vitro regenerated plants were successfully established in pot holes containing coco-peat on plastic tray and maintained under polythene tents. Survival of the plantlets under ex vitro condition was 60%.
  A. Habib , M.R. Ali , M.N. Amin and M.M. Rahman
  The present study was undertaken with a view to develop a reproducible protocol for in vitro propagation of white mulberry (Morus alba L.). For this purpose, surface sterilization of the explants from field grown mature plants was done with 0.1% HgCl2 with a treatment duration of 5 minutes for shoot tip and that with 6 minutes for nodal segments. Between the two explants used, nodal explant exhibit comparatively better response to axillary shoot proliferation. Analysis of the results obtained from the proliferation experiment proved that effectiveness of cytokinin BA was better than that of Kn with respect to axillary shoot formation. And that MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l G 1 BA was found to be best where 100% of the explants proliferated with the axillary shoots having average length of 5.46 " 0.02 cm and a multiplication rate of 7 fold per 4-week. On the other hand, percentage of root induction and number of roots per shoot were largely affected by the concentration of MS medium and type of the auxins used. The highest percentage (100%) of root regeneration was obtained in half MS medium supplemented with 0.5% mg l G 1 IBA.
  M.M. Rahman , M.N. Amin , S. Ahmad and R. Ahmed
  Micropropagation of native-olive (Elaeocarpus robustus Roxb.) has been proved difficult due very slow rooting of the shoot cuttings. The objective of the present investigation was to develop a technique for in vitro fast rooting of the aseptically grown shoots of native-olive. Rooting experiment was conducted on 1/2MS medium with various concentrations and combinations of NAA, IBA and IAA along with or without incubation at higher temperature (30 ° C) in dark condition for initial one week. Root forming performance of IBA was proved to be the best among the three auxins tested. Highest frequency of rooting with maximum number of effective roots was observed on the hormone-free medium in normal growth room condition after treating the microcutting with 0.2 mg L-1 IBA and incubated under 30 ± C in dark for initial one week. Early emergence and fast growth of roots without any malformation were also observed at the same treatment. At this culture condition 85% of the microcuttings produced 5.80 ± 0.15 roots per cutting where average length of roots per cutting was 4.65 ± 0.18 cm. The plantlets originated through the above treatment established themselves under ex vitro condition much quicker than those originated through other treatments.
  M.Y. Ali , G.M. Salim , M.A. Mannan , M.M. Rahman , W. Sabbir and A. Murshida
  An investigation was carried out on the fish species availability in the fish landing centers of Khulna district. Almost all major fish landing centers in this area were surveyed. A total of 139 inland and marine water fish and crustacean species were observed. Out of 139, 126 species belonged to fin fish and the rest 13 species to crustacean. Amongst the fin fish species, 53 were fresh water, 23 were brackish water, 11 exotic and 39 marine water species. Twenty two fish species were found both as inland and marine water species. Nineteen species were detected endangered (Ompok pabda, Hilsa toil, Puntius sarana, Notopterus chitala, Mustus aor, Rita rita, Nandus nandus, Eutroeiichthys vacha, Notopterus notopterus, Wallago attu, Channa marulius, Labeo bata, Pangus pangus, Bagarius bagarius, Rasbora rasbora, Puntius ticto, Rohtee cotio, Labeo calbasu and Chanda nama). In summer, 30 species and in winter, 43 species were more available and the rest of the species were found all the year round. On the basis of abundance, Carp species, Lates calcarifer, Pelamys chiliensis, Trichiurus haumela, Katengus typus, Penaeus monodon and Scylla serrata were recorded most abundant, respectively.
  M.M. Rahman , M.N. Amin , R. Ahmed , M.A.K. Azad and F. Begum
  Regeneration of multiple shoots via callus induction and organogenesis were achieved in native-olive (Elaeocarpus robustus). Callus induction and shoot buds regeneration were obtained from internode explants of Elaeocarpus robustus on their sufficient medium. The best organic callus was found on modified MS (MMS1) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L1 BA+0.5 mg L1 2,4-D. Development of adventitious shoots occurred when the calli were subcultured on MMS1 medium supplemented with BA and NAA. Maximum frequency (80%) of calli induced adventitious shoots with highest number of 14.05 ± 1.56 shoots per callus were obtained when the medium was fortified with 1.0 mg L1 BA+0.1 mg L1 NAA. Plantlets developed roots when in vitro developed microcuttings were implanted on modified MS (MMS2) medium with 0.2 mg L1 of IBA. Within six weeks of transfer, 65% rooting was achieved on this medium. Rooted shoots (plantlets) were gradually acclimatized and successfully established under natural condition with about 50% survival rate.
  M.S.U. Khan , M.M. Rahman , M.A. Samad , M. M. Khatun and M.H. Rahman
  The study was carried out to determine the efficacy of neem oil and common salt as curing agent to control biodegradation of green hides. A total number of nine intact hides were obtained from slaughtered cattle of 4 and 4 1/2 years of age. Three types of curing treatments were employed using various concentrations of neem oil and common salts. T1 provides 40% neem oil and 10% common salt, T2 includes 10% neem oil and 20% common salt and T3 contains 10% neem oil and 10% common salt. The hides of each treatment were kept at 10, 20 and 30 days storage periods. After every 10 days of storage hides were subjected to bacteriological examinations. Storage properties of hides were also determined by the evidence of spot, color changes and sliminess of the skin. The mean value of total bacterial count was recorded lowest 6.96±0.30 in T2. Total coliform counts were found almost nil in T2. None of the treatment was found effective to control the growth of staphylococci. No signs of bacterial spoilage in hides were evident in T1 upto 10 days of storage. However indication of some sliminess could be noticed in the regions of neck and butt after storage of 20 and 30 days. T2 exhibited more or less changes in color on the 10th day of storage and sliminess was noticed fairly distributed on the neck and belly regions on the 30th day of storage. T3 exhibited some noticeable changes in the butt region. Putrefactive action started and there was indication of tissue changes, which could be marked, from the 10th day of storage. At the butt region foul odor was perceptible and few hair slip was evidenced on the 30th day of storage. It is concluded that the treatment using combination of neem oil and common salt showed antibacterial activity against the growing contaminating putrefactive organisms but less effective against halophiles.
  M.M. Rahman , M.N. Amin , T. Ahamed , S. Ahmad , A. Habib , R. Ahmed , M.B. Ahmed and M.R. Ali
  An efficient protocol has been established for rapid production of plantlets using rhizome tip and lateral bud explants of the field grown plant. The explants were cultured on MS medium with auxins (NAA, IBA and IAA) and cytokinins (BA and Kn). Cent percent of the explants produced two or three shoot buds in each culture when they were cultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L -1 BA+0.1 mg L -1 NAA within three weeks of culture. The number of shoots per culture increased gradually when the primary cultures were subcultured in two weeks intervals. Highest number of 20.50±1.80 shoots proliferated in each culture when the explants of initially sprouted shoots were subcultured at three times on the same medium. Microshoots were isolated from the in vitro proliferated cluster of shoots produced roots in 100% cases on modified (MMS2) medium supplemented with 0.2 mg L -1 of IBA. Maximum number of 12.4±1.23 roots per microshoot were recorded on the medium containing 0.2 mg L -1 IBA. The regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and established on the soil with eighty five percent success.
  M. Salah Uddin , K. Nasirujjaman , M.M. Rahman and M.A. Reza
  The present study was conducted to induce callus from different in vitro grown seedling explants viz., cotyledon, nodal segment and leaf segment and to develop shoot buds from callus. At first, all the explants were cultured on MS medium supplement with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, KIN, NAA and 2,4-D. Among all the explants, cotyledon showed best performance for callus induction. For this explant, the highest callusing (93.33%) and the highest fresh weight of callus (1.38 g) was observed in MS+2.0 mg L 1 BAP+0.5 mgL 1NAA media composition. Among all the concentrations and combinations, higher concentration of cytokinin (BAP) with lower concentration of auxin (NAA) was proved to be the best for callus induction. Calli, which were obtained from cotyledon and leaf segment in MS+2.0 mg L 1 BAP+0.5 mg L 1 NAA were subcultured in MS media having different concentrations and combinations of BAP and KIN with NAA. It was found that MS medium supplemented with KIN-NAA combination was the best for development of shoot buds from calli.
  R.S. Sultana , M.A. Bari Miah , M.M. Rahman , M.H. Rahman and M.U. Mollah
  Effects of different concentrations of sucrose, agar and different levels of pH on in vitro axillary shoot multiplication of Momordica charantea Linn. were studied in the present investigation. The nodal segments from the field grown plant were used as testing plant material. For maximum number of shoot induction and multiplication in MS medium  containing 2.0 mg L 1 BAP+0.2 mg L 1 NAA with 30 g L 1 of sucrose, 7 g L 1 of agar and 5.5-6.0 levels of pH proved more effective. When the medium having 30 g L 1 sucrose, the highest percentage of explant responded to shoot proliferation and that was 100%. This sucrose concentration also showed the optimum result for total number of shoot per culture and average length of shoots and that were 5.1±0.8 and 5.6±0.4 cm, respectively. The highest response of shoot proliferation from the nodal explant was observed on MS medium having 7 g L 1 of agar and the frequency was 100%. Among different levels of pH, the highest percentage of explant showing proliferation was observed on the media adjusted to pH 5.5-6.0 levels. It was proved by the present investigation that in vitro growth and shoot multiplication was affected by sucrose, agar and pH on the shoot induction medium.
  S.K. Das , M. Sakakibara , A. Sakurai , J. Bhattacharjee , M.M. Rahman and M.A. Awal
  To observe the effect of environmentally persistent chemical formalin on the cells of male genital system as well as reproduction an experiment was conducted in the Department of Anatomy and Histology, BAU, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh. Ten percent commercial formalin was used in 12 prepubertal male Black Bengal goats. At fifteen days after a single exposure of formalin, atrophy of testes was observed for the first time and at thirty days after exposure the mean weight, length and width of testes were significantly decreased compared to those of control group. In histopathological observation, it was found that the peripheral tubules were more affected than the central ones. In heavily affected areas, the seminiferous tubules were collapsed or shrunk. Focal or complete necrosis was also noticed in different regions of treated testes. In addition, increased connective tissues with macrophage infiltration were also observed in the interstitial region. Mark eosinophilic staining was also observed in the treated testicular tissue. The sloughed and necrosed seminiferous tubules were also found indicating cellular degradation caused by formalin. Further study is also needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cellular degradation caused by such environmentally persistent chemicals both in vivo and in vitro.
  M. Rahman , M. Rahman , M.M. Rahman , A. Koddus and G.U. Ahmad
  In this research, soil-to-plant Transfer Factor (TF) for radiocesium has been measured by field experiment. Soil and grassy plant grown in a contaminated land containing radiocesium in the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) campus, Savar, Dhaka were collected to investigate the transfer of radiocesium in the soil-plant system. The activities of radiocesium in soil and grassy plant were measured using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with associated accessories. Using the measured activities, TF values were found within the range of 2.7H10•2 to 4.7H10•2, which are reasonably comparable with the values found in the literature. Soil characteristics were also investigated to assist the measured TF values for the corresponding soil. This data set might be useful while calculating radiological human dose via the ingestion pathway in the tropical environment.
  W. Kabir , M. Alam , D.H. Rogers and M.M. Rahman
  The research has been undertaken to compare the daily reference alfalfa evapotranspiration (ET) value measured by Penman-Monteith method with those determined by the Penman, Adjusted Penman and Jensen methods. Estimation of reference ET has been calculated using 5 years data of Southwest Research Extension Center of Kansas State University (KSU), USA at Garden city kept recorded at KSU Weather Data Library. The comparison of the four methods includes daily peak ET values determined by the methods under study, correlation of the major meteorological data with the ET values, average and total ET values and regression equations with reference to the Penman-Monteith method. The estimation made by the Penman-Monteith method shows the best reflection of the climatic data in comparison to those of the other methods in terms of correlation with climatic parameters.
  K.S. Huque , M.M. Rahman and M.A. Jalil
  Chemical composition and the rumen degradability of different types of tree twigs and leaves and shrubs usually browsed by the gayal were determined. Dumur (Ficus hispida) twigs contained the highest CP (170 g kg-1 DM) and the whole Pahari Narish contained the highest ADF (451 g kg-1 DM). The CP content of Gamari (Gmellina arborea) twigs, whole Rokygola plants, Bamboo (Podocarpus nerifolia) leaves and twigs or Alu (Solanum tuberosum) plant twigs ranged from 102 to 111 g kg-1 DM, while their ADF contents ranged from 250 to 400 g kg-1 DM. Pahari Kalmilata (Convolvulus arvenses) contained the lowest CP (57 g kg-1 DM). The whole Lata (Eupatorium odoratum) contained the lowest ADF (181 g kg-1 DM). The 48h degradability of Dumur, Gamari and Pahari Kalmi ranged from 611 to 677 g kg-1 DM and of Furun (Thysanolaena maxima) pata and Pahari Kola (Musa ornata) pata ranged from 404 to 488 g kg-1 DM. The lowest DM degradation at 48h was found with Bamboo leaves and twigs (258 g kg-1 DM). A silage feeding trial on gayals showed that the daily fresh biomass intake of the Para (Brachiria mutica) and Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) silage was 6.85 and 6.54 kg/h when the browsing time of the animals were restricted to half of the control groups. Restriction of browsing and feeding of silage did not significantly (p>0.05) change the daily live weight gains of the gayals fed the Napier and Para silage (439 and 347 g/d, respectively) from that of the control (422 g/d). Another feeding trial on gayals showed that the daily voluntary intake of roughage was 2.40 kg (DM/%LW) for group of stall feeding when the browsing time of the animals was restricted to 2 h/d. Restriction of browsing and feeding of available roughage did not significantly (p>0.05) change the daily live weight gain of the gayals fed the available roughage (94 g/d) from that of the control (101 g/d).
  D. Biswas , F.Y. Bari , M. Shamsuddin , M.M. Rahman and M.M. Rahman
  The percentages of glycerol level were determined for long time buck semen preservation and the highest post-thaw motility was observed using fifty-four ejaculates, collected twice in a week from the 3 mature Black Bengal Bucks (18 from each buck). Every 6 ejaculates from each buck were preserved in liquid nitrogen with different percentages of glycerol with tris-glucose-citric acid-egg yolk media by one-step dilution method. The motility was observed in fresh semen, two hours after chilling and 24 hours after freezing. In fresh semen there was no significant variation on sperm motility either between bucks or within the buck. Two hours after chilling the sperm motility was significantly higher (P<0.01) in 7% glycerol added diluents than that of 5 and 10% glycerol. Similar results were also observed following 24 hours after freezing (P<0.01), where the highest post-thaw motility was 52%. Therefore, 7% glycerol containing media appear to be suitable for preserving the Black Bengal Buck semen for future use.
  I.H. Tarafder , M.S. Rahman , A.K.M.M. Hossain , J.A. Syeda and M.M. Rahman
  An experiment was conducted in the Rabi seasons of 1999 and 2000 to investigate the appropriate plant population of onion as a companion crop that would not adversely affect the chilli yield and also to assess the economic benefit. The results showed that the yields of chilli decreased with the increase of onion population but the chilli yields when intercropped with 20-80% onion population were not significantly decreased. The highest average yields of dry chilli (1546 kg ha‾1) and onion (8042 kg ha‾1) were observed from their respective sole crops. Average over two years data, all intercropping treatments gave higher chilli equivalent yield and net monetary return per hectare than the sole chilli. In addition, the highest average chilli equivalent yield (2732 kg ha‾1), land equivalent ratio (1.34) and net return (Tk. 46,395.00 ha‾1) were obtained from 20% onion population intercropped with chilli indicating the practice of intercropping of chilli at different onion population was more profitable than the conventional monoculture of chilli.
  U.K. Nath , S. Naz and M.M. Rahman
  This study was conducted with varieties, inter-variety and inter-species hybrids of Brassica oil crop to determine genetic divergence. The divergence study indicated that parent, inter-variety and inter-species hybrids almost clearly forms five groups indicating that they are divergent and might be of value for future breeding programme. Based on the study on genetic divergence of the Brassica, the varieties having the performance and located in the distant clusters could be utilized for hybridization programme to develop desired high yielding varieties. The genotypes grouped together are less divergent than the ones which into different clusters.
  R. Khatun , M.A.R. Howlider , M.M. Rahman and M. Hasanuzzaman
  A total of 144 day old straight run Arber Acres broiler chicks were fed ad libitum up to 42 days of age on 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets formulated by replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) by silkworm pupae (SWP) up to 42 days of age. Four diets; D0 (6% FM + 0% SWP), D1 (4% FM + 2% SWP), D2 (2% FM + 4% SWP) and D3 (0% FM + 6% SWP) were fed to observe the effect of dietary SWP on performance. The growth rate, feed conversion, livability, meat yield and profitability increased almost linearly on increasing level of SWP.
  M.M. Rahman , T. Somsiri , K. Tajima and Y. Ezura
  Distribution pattern of a collection of 106 Aeromonas strains isolated from both healthy and epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)-affected fish, septicaemic disease affected frog and turtle in Bangladesh, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand was investigated. The study was conducted through the physio-biochemical characterization of the strains and subsequent confirmation by analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of some randomly chosen representative strains from all identified phenotype. Special emphasis was given to confirm a group of strains, which belonged to a newly identified species Aeromonas sp. T8 by DNA-DNA hybridization method. The newly identified species Aeromonas sp. T8 group was particularly found in different species of EUS-affected fish in Philippines and Thailand. A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila and A. hydrophila subsp. ranae was recovered from EUS of fish and septicaemic diseases of frog and turtle. A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila was distributed in Bangladesh and Thailand while A. hydrophila subsp. ranae was found only in Thailand. A. veronii biotype sobria and A. veronii biotype veronii was found to be dispersed mostly in EUS-affected fish in different countries. A. jandaei was obtained from EUS-positive fish in Bangladesh and Malaysia but A. media from healthy fish in Bangladesh.
  K.U. Ahmed , M.M. Rahman , M.Z. Alam and S.U. Ahmed
  A survey on farmer’s pest control methods and direct yield loss assessment of country bean (Dolichos lablab) was done during September 2000 to February 2001 in North Edilpur and South Mohadebpur villages of Sitakundu under Chittagong district. Results revealed that farmers used Fanfan, Nogos, Ripcord, Malathion, Roxion and Sumithion as chemical methods and applying ash and handpicking of insect pests as non-chemical method to control insect pests. The frequency of insecticide application during flowering stage to harvest was 9 to 15 with waiting period of only 3 to 20 days and 6 to 12 with waiting period of 3 to 25 days in North Edilpur and South Mohadebpur, respectively. The pod infestation by pod borer and aphids varied from 2.29 to 5.12% and from 2.83 to7.16% in North Edilpur and South Mohadebpur, respectively. Insect pests thus caused direct yield loss of 60.38-200.69 kg ha-1 in North Edilpur and 92.63-345.80 kg ha-1 in South Mohadebpur.
  S.M.A.T. Khandakhar , M.M. Rahman , M.J. Uddin , S.A.K.U. Khan and K.G. Quddus
  An experiment was conducted in strongly acidic sandy loam soil (pH: 4.5-5.2) to investigate the effect of lime and potassium on nutrient uptake by soil and tuber. Lime was applied at the rate of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 t ha-1 and potassium at the rate of 0, 60, 80 and 100 K, kg ha-1. The treatment combinations were allocated to the experimental plots in randomized complete block design. Application of lime and potassium significantly increased total dry matter yield as well as total uptake of nutrients by soil and plant. Lime slightly decreased Mg concentration in haulms and had no effect on tubers.
  S.M.A.T. Khandakhar , M.M. Rahman , M.J. Uddin , S.A.K.U. Khan and K.G. Quddus
  A study was conducted in strongly acidic sandy loam soil at the Potato Breeder Seed Production farm, BARI, Debigonge, Panchogar, to investigate the effect of lime and potassium on tuber yield. The tested factors were application rates of lime (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 t ha-1) and potassium (0, 60, 80 and 100 K, kg ha-1). The treatment combinations were allocated to experimental plots in Randomized Complete Block Design. Lime and potassium significantly increased tuber yield. Highest increased yield was recorded about 86.54% over control. The optimum rate of lime and potassium in acidic sandy-loam soils could be recommended for potato cultivation at 2 t ha-1 and 100 kg ha-1, respectively.
  M.M.H. Khan , M.A. Islam , M.M. Hossain , M.M. Rahman and M.N. Islam
  Milk samples from single, twin and triplet or 1st, 2nd and 3rd lactation bearing Black Bengal goat were collected to monitor the physical (organoleptic, specific gravity and pH value) and chemical (acidity, fat, SNF, total solids, protein, lactose and ash content of milk) quality of milk. From the above tests, it was observed that the color, flavor, taste and texture of milk samples were normal; yellowish white, normal (goaty), slightly sweet and free flowing liquid. Except acidity and protein content, all other chemical traits varied significantly among different kid bearing goats milk. Chemical parameters were similar in different lactations except fat and total solids percentage. Results of the above experiments indicated that milk obtained from single kid bearing and 2nd lactating goats were better than the other number of kids bearing or lactating goats
  M.A. Mazed , M.S. Islam , M.M. Rahman , M.A. Islam and M.A. Kadir
  In the present study urea molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) may be used as a catalytic feeding to the straw based diet of the indigenous cows for fertility. With that understanding, 49 indigenous post partum cows from 49 marginal village farmers of village-Boira were selected and a cake of 250 g/h/d UMMB was supplied with their usual feeding from date to calving to the date of confirmation of pregnancy. Cows were stall fed. Reproductive events of cows were recorded as when occurred. Milk progesterone was measured by using radio immuno assay (RIA) technique. Similarly, 49 cows were in control group in the same village. The results in control and UMMB group were-calving to 1st p4 (progesterone) rise (days) 104±52 and 103±37 (p>0.05); calving to first service (days) 194±68 and 130±64 (p<0.01); calving to conception (days) 199±72 and 162±73 (p>0.05) and subsequent calving interval (days) 480±73 and 443±70 (p>0.05), respectively. From the study, it may be concluded that UMMB has a positive effect on fertility of the local cows under the village condition of Bangladesh.
  S.M. Mahbubul Alam , M.M. Rahman , M.H. Rahman and N.N. Rahman
  The interaction of tetracycline hydrochloride to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) at various temperatures and pH values using Equilibrium Dialysis (ED) method was studied. Scatchard analysis of the binding data revealed the presence of one high affinity binding site with k1 value of 1.67x106 M-1 and six low affinity binding sites with k2 value of 1.44x105 M-1 at pH 7.4 and 25°C. Site-specific probe displacement data suggested that warfarin site (site-I) is the high affinity binding site and benzodiazepine site (site-II) is the low affinity binding site on BSA for this drug. The high affinity binding site was found to be affected by temperature and pH of the medium. The thermodynamic data indicated that the binding process of tetracycline hydrochloride to BSA is spontaneous, exothermic and entropically driven. Electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals forces are probably involved in the overall binding process of tetracycline hydrochloride to BSA. The affinity of this drug to BSA is dependent on the conformational changes of BSA caused by N-B transition.
  N. Ahmed and M.M. Rahman
  The present study concerned about the fish marketing systems in Gazipur, based on existing marketing systems, economic features of marketing activities and inefficiencies. In Gazipur, fish marketing is almost exclusively a preserve of the private sector where livelihoods of a large number of people are associated with fish distribution and marketing systems. The market chain from producers to consumers passes through a number of intermediaries: local traders, agents/suppliers, wholesalers and retailers. Based on a sample of 40 traders from the two different markets in Gazipur district, the daily supply of fish market in Gazipur Sadar and Sripur markets were estimated at 2-3 and 1-1.5 tones, respectively. Virtually most of the fish (80%) is imported from outside, the local supply amount only 20%. It is estimated that 48% of fish supplied in markets is of carps 13% hilsa, 9% catfish, 7% small indigenous fish, 6% prawn and shrimp, 5% tilapia and 12% others including marine fish. The price of fish depends on market structure, species quality, size and weight and it was found that the price per kilogram of carp increases with size. All traders in two markets made a considerable amount of profit.
  N. Ahmed , M.M. Rahman and M.M. Rahman
  A study was conducted to assess fish catch in the Baila beel of Maljhee-Kangsa floodplain in the north-central part of Bangladesh. A total of 7 types of fishing gear were found in use by the fishermen which are: push net, gill net, cast net, lift net, current net, fish traps and hooks. The duration of fishing depends on use of fishing gear, season, habitat type, water depth and abundance of fishes. From the survey it was found that the highest average fishing time was estimated in fish trap (18.04 h/day) and the lowest in push net (3.21 h/day). There are variations in the Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE) of different gears in different seasons. The highest and the lowest CPUE were recorded in current net and hook which were 0.31 and 0.02 kg/gear/h, respectively. According to the fishermen, the highest catch was obtained during the receding of floodwater in post-monsoon season (October-December) and the lowest during the pre-monsoon season (April-June). A total of 39 fish species were identified in the catches of different gears. From the survey it was found that a fisherman daily catches an average 1.43 kg of fish. Alarmingly, the catch of fish has declined by an estimated 20% in the past five years. Concerns arise about the sustainable catches due to over fishing and indiscriminate use of gears. It is therefore necessary to provide institutional and organisational supports for artificial stocking and establishing fish sanctuaries through active community participation for sustainable catches.
  M. Aminur Rahman , S. Ahammed , K.M.M. Hasan , M.M.H. Bhuiyan , F. Ali , M.S. Islam and M.M. Rahman
  A study was undertaken to develop the economic status of rural women of Kishoregonj district in Bangladesh through fish farming. In total, 200 beneficiaries of Nari Uddug Kendra (NUK) having various sizes of pond were selected by baseline survey at Pakundia, Hossainpur and Tarail Upazillas (sub-districts) of Kishoreganj district and made a two-day training on carp-prawn polyculture and provided counseling on the pond sites in a small group routinely from pond preparation to marketing of their products. Five fish species viz., silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), catla (Catla catla) rohu (Labeo rohita), grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idela) and Thai sharpunti (Barbodes gonionotus) and one prawn species, golda (Machrobranchium rosenbergi) were used in the present investigation. Pond preparation and management were depended upon the use of lime, cow dung, urea and Triple Super Phosphate (TSP). The average stocking densities of fish fingerlings and shrimp post-larvae (PL) were 17,290 ha-1 with the species compositions of silver carp (20%), catla (10%), rohu (20%), grass carp (1.43%), Thai sharputi (14.3%) and golda (34.3%). Supplementary feed comprising of rice/wheat bran and mustard oilcake (2:3) was applied at the rate of 8-12% of the total live fish weight twice daily. Duckweed either produced in pond or collected from the external sources was also used as additional supplementary feed. Physico-chemical parameters of pond water were within the normal range for fish culture. Mean production of fish and shrimp was obtained to be 1,980 kg ha-1 over an average culture period of 240 days. Pond management input and cost-benefit data were recorded by the farmers and were then analyzed by fish experts. The mean production cost was estimated to be Tk. 18,772 ha-1 with a benefit of Tk. 47,041 ha-1.
  M. Khanam , M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam and M. R. Islam
  An experiment was conducted at the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm, Mymensingh during the Aman season of 1999 to evaluate the effect of manures and fertilizers on the growth and yield of BRRI Dhan 30. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. There were seven treatments such as T0 (control), T1 (N100), T2 (N100S10Zn5), T3 (PM5), T4 (PM7.5), T5 (PM10) and T6 (CD10). The results demonstrated that all the treatments had positive effect on the yield components and yields of BRRI Dhan 30. Grain and straw yields of BRRI Dhan 30 were significantly increased due to different treatment and the highest value was recorded with the application of poultry manure at 10 t ha -1. The NPKS content in BRRI Dhan 30 and their uptake were increased due to the application of manures and fertilizers. Analysis of post-harvest soils revealed that organic manure application had a positive influence on organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable K, available S and CEC of the post-harvest soils.
  M.M. Rahman , D.B. Biswas , M.M. Rahman , M.M. Islam and M.A. Islam
  Bacteriological examination of septic wounds in animals was conducted in the Veterinary Clinic, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during the period of January 2001 to July 2002. A total of 250 samples were collected for the identification of bacteria from the wound and 227 (90.8%) were found infected with bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism (33.92%) and then Escherichia coli (18.94%) and the lowest prevalence was the Streptococcus spp. (9.25%). In vitro drug sensitivity study revealed that Gentamycin, Cephalosporin, Neomycin and Streptomycin are potent antibiotic for the treatment of infected wound and Penicillin and Sulphamethaxazole are less sensitive to contaminated wound. For better conception and accurate treatment of complicated wounds, it is necessary to have cultural isolation of the microorganisms and antibiotic sensitivity of each isolate before the treatment.
  A.B. Siddique , A. Khatun , M.M. Rahman and D. Wright
  Studies were provided evidence that as density of plant increased seed yield decreased and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed weight per plant and 100 seed weight all decreased. High density also produced the poorest quality pea seeds. There were no differences in germination percentage of the seeds produced from the main stem. However, the seeds produced from the branches showed a variation in germination. The germination percentage was similar in the lower nodes but in the upper nodes of the branches showed a lower germination percentage.
  M.M. Hossain , M.M. Hossain , M.M. Rashid , M. Asaduzzaman and M.M. Rahman
  The present study was assigned to determine the present status including general information, feeding breeding housing milking etc. and costs & returns of small dairy farms, to compare the productive and reproductive performance of crossbred and indigenous cows and to make recommendation for development of small scales dairy farm. With this view, the empirical data were collected by using protested questionnaire. The study was conducted at 8 thanas in Rangpur district, and four months-long survey was diminished on thirty small dairy owners. It appeared from the study that 57% farm owners belong to business class and remaining 43 per cent to different categories. Fifty three per cent took dairying as a side-business whereas only 47 per cent took it as a main business enterprise. Major percentage of farm owner education level that was Higher Secondary level (60%) and the average number of animal per farm was 13.01. The average monthly income of farm owners found in the study area was Tk. 4387. It was observed that farm owners had 85.4% crossbred (like Friesian cross and Jersey cross) and was 14.6% indigenous cattle, and 87% farmers used artificial insemination and rest used both artificial and natural services. Daily milk yield/cow/farm was 4.27 and 1.78 liters for a crossbred and indigenous dairy cow, respectively. It was estimated that the rearing cost of dairy cow was Tk. 67.5/cow/day and return from rearing dairy cow was Tk. 85.2/cow/day. The net return was Tk. 17.7/cow/day from crossbred in the study area and cost benefit ratio was 1: 1.26. The study showed that there were significant (P<0.01) differences within the dry period, service per conception, calving to first service, highest and lowest milk production and lactation period of crossbred and indigenous dairy cows. The study also showed non-significant differences within calving interval for crossbred and indigenous. Incase of small dairy farming, the farms were facing a lot of problems such as scarcity of feeds and fodder, high price of concentrate and lack of technical knowledge. Although the dairy cow owners face problems, the study observed that there were potentials particularly for the small dairy farmers. The small farmers by keeping 8-10 crossbred cows could earn a modest living by adopting small dairy farming as a profession.
  M.A. Azim , M.M. Rashid , M.M. Rahman , M.M. Alam and Jharna Begum
  The present study was assigned to asses the nutritional status of individuals and household level, to measure food intake and to find out the socio-economic condition of rural household relating to nutritional status. The study was a cross sectional field survey, where samples were enrolled conveniently and random and which was conducted in a village Jugitola a less agri-based community of Gazipur District. With this view, the empirical data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires. Socio-economic and dietary data were collected by recalling from 12 households with a total of 75 members. It was found that the average family size, land holding capacity, homestead gardening and monthly family income per household were 6 numbers, 68 decimal, 11 decimal and Tk. 6,194, respectively. The average food expenditure per household was Tk. 3387. The average non-food expenditure was Tk. 860 per family per month. Dependency ratio 1:3 was observed in about half of the families. No mal-nourished children aged under 5 years was found. It was observed that land holding, household size and income were not a factor to develop mal-nourished women. Most of the people of the survey area consumed more cereal compared to Anim. food and also consumed less amount of leafy vegetable. The per capita intake of protein, Vit.A and riboflavin is much lower than requirement. The largest part of the energy comes from cereals in rural areas. The mother consumed less amount of every type of food than other members of the family, but both the mother and children get less amount of energy than they need.
  M.M. Islam , K. Sultana , M.G. Mostafa , H.A. Begum , M.M. Rahman and M.N. Nabi
  A study was under taken to measure the effects of different level of seed borne infections on the fibre yield contributing characters of jute at Kishoreganj regional station of BJRI. Varieties D-154 and BJC-7370 were selected for this study. Infected seeds of the above two varieties were collected from JAES, Manikganj and categorized on the basis of seed-borne pathogens viz. 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% infected seeds. Findings revealed that, both D-154 and BJC-7370 of jute had less seedling emergence in the field with the increase of initial seed borne infections. Stem rot, black band and anthracnose diseases were noticed after one month of seed sowing in the fields. As the initial seed borne infections increases, disease development in the field also increases. Fibre yield contributing characters (plant height and base diameter) and fibre weight decreases with the increase of initial seed borne infections.
  M.M. Rahman , A.B. Rosli , M.M. Noor , M.S.M. Sani and J.M. Julie
  This study presents the effect of the spot weld and sheets thickness on the fatigue life of the of the spot-weld joints to predict the lifetime and location of the weakest spot-welds due to the variable amplitude loading conditions. A simple model was used to illustrate the technique of spot-weld fatigue analysis. Finite element model and analysis were carried out utilizing the finite element analysis commercial codes. Linear elastic finite element analysis was carried out to predict the stress state along the weld direction. It can be seen from the results that the predicted life greatly influence the sheet thickness, nugget diameter and loading conditions of the model. Acquired results were shown the predicted life for the nugget and the two sheets around the circumference of the spot-weld at which angle the worst damage occurs. The spot-welding fatigue analysis techniques are awfully essential for automotive structure design.
  M.M. Rahman and B.A.B. Rosli
  This study presents the finite element analysis technique to predict the fatigue life using narrow band frequency response approach. The life prediction results are worthy for improving the component design at the very early developing stage. This approach is adequate for periodic loading, however, requires very large time records to accurately describe random loading processes. This study describes how this technique can be implemented in the finite element environment to rapidly identify the critical areas of the structure. Fatigue damage in conventionally determined from time signals of the loading, frequently in the form of stress and strain. However, there are scenarios when a spectral form of loading is more appropriate. In this case the loading is defined in terms of its magnitude at different frequencies in the form of a Power Spectral Density (PSD) plot. The vibration fatigue calculation can be utilized where the random loading and response are categorized using power spectral density functions and the dynamic structure is modeled as a linear transfer function. This study also investigates the effect of the mean stress on the fatigue life prediction using the random loading. The acquired results indicate that the Goodman mean stress correction method gives the most conservative results with the Gerber and no (zero) mean stress method. The proposed technique is capable of determining premature products failure phenomena. Therefore, it can be reduce cost, time to market, improve the product reliability and finally the user confidence.
  M.M. Rahman , A.Z. Rahman and M.S. Islam
  A study was conducted to determine the incidence of diseases in various age groups of 10 different flocks of birds from 5 different poultry farms in some selected areas of Bangladesh. The diseases were diagnosed based on history,signs and symptoms prior to death,lesions observed after post mortem examination of dead birds and by bacteriological examinations. A total 8169 dead chickens (2960 chicks, 1083 grower and 4126 adults) were examined. Related samples like liver,spleen and intestine were collected and were cultured on different bacteriological agar media. Among bacterial diseases salmonellosis was found in 53.90% of chicks (group 1) followed by omphalitis in 28.42%, colibacillosis in 13.36%, mycoplasmosis in 2.55%, necrotic enteritis in 1.18% and infectious coryza in 0.59%. The bacterial diseases salmonellosis, colibacillosis, infectious coryza and necrotic enteritis were detected in 55.96, 11.93, 29.91 and 2.20% of group 2 (growers), respectively. Omphalitis disease was never found in grower. Mycoplasmosis was not found in group 2. Salmonellosis was found in 53.32% of adult chicken followed by mycoplasmosis in 39.09%, infectious coryza in 6.11% and necrotic enteritis in 1.48%. Omphalitis was also not found in this group. This group was also not affected by colibacillosis.
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