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Articles by M.M. Rahman
Total Records ( 72 ) for M.M. Rahman
  M.A. Rahman , S.M.M. Rahman , M.A. Jalil , Sarder Nasir Uddin and M.M. Rahman
   This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31). Highest level of Nei’s[1] gene diversity value (0.4898) was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei’s[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.
  M.M. Rahman , A.B. Rosli , M.M. Noor , M.S. M. Sani and J.M. Julie
  This study presents the effect of the spot weld and sheets thickness on the fatigue life of the of the spot-weld joints to predict the lifetime and location of the weakest spot-welds due to the variable amplitude loading conditions. A simple model was used to illustrate the technique of spot-weld fatigue analysis. Finite element model and analysis were carried out utilizing the finite element analysis commercial codes. Linear elastic finite element analysis was carried out to predict the stress state along the weld direction. It can be seen from the results that the predicted life greatly influence the sheet thickness, nugget diameter and loading conditions of the model. Acquired results were shown the predicted life for the nugget and the two sheets around the circumference of the spot-weld at which angle the worst damage occurs. The spot-welding fatigue analysis techniques are awfully essential for automotive structure design.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , S. Abdullah , M.M. Noor and Rosli A. B
  This research presents the durability assessment of cylinder block for a two-stroke free piston engine using narrow band approach. The life prediction results are worthy for improving the component design at the very early developing stage. This approach is adequate for periodic loading, however, requires very large time records to accurately describe random loading processes. Fatigue damage in conventionally determined from time signals of the loading, frequently in the form of stress and strain. However, there are scenarios when a spectral form of loading is more appropriate. In this case the loading is defined in terms of its magnitude at different frequencies in the form of a Power Spectral Density (PSD) plot. The vibration fatigue calculation can be utilized where the random loading and response are categorized using power spectral density functions and the dynamic structure is modeled as a linear transfer function. This research also investigates the effect of the mean stress on the fatigue life prediction using the random loading. The acquired results indicate that the Goodman mean stress correction method gives the most conservative results with the Gerber and no (zero) mean stress method. It is observed that the compressive mean stresses are beneficial while the tensile mean stresses are detrimental to the fatigue life. The proposed technique is capable of determining premature products failure phenomena. Therefore, this technique is able to reduce cost, time to market, improve the product reliability and finally the user confidence.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , S. Abdullah , M.M. Noor , Rosli A. Bakar and M. A. Maleque
 

Objectives: This study was focused on the finite element techniques to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the fatigue life of the vibrating cylinder block for new two-stroke free piston engine using random loading conditions.
Motivation:
An understanding of the effects related to the random loading is necessary to improve the ability of designers to accurately predict the fatigue behavior of the components in service. An internal combustion engine cylinder block is a high volume production component subjected to random loading.
Problem statement:
Proper optimization of this component that is critical to the engine fuel efficiency and more robustly pursued by the automotive industry in recent years. A detailed understanding of the applied loads and resulting stresses under in-service conditions is demanded.
Approach:
The finite element modeling and analysis were performed utilizing the computer aided design and finite element analysis codes respectively. In addition, the fatigue life prediction was carried out using finite element based fatigue analysis code. Aluminum alloys were considered as typical materials in this study.
Results: The frequency response approach was applied to predict the fatigue life of cylinder block using different load histories. Based on the finite element results, it was observed that the fatigue life was significantly influenced for the nitriding treatment. The obtained results were indicated that the nitrided treatment produces longest life for all loading conditions.
Conclusion: The nitriding process is one of the promising surface treatments to increase the fatigue life for aluminum alloys linear engine cylinder block.

  M.M. Noor , K. Kadirgama , Aidy Ali , M.M. Rahman and Z. Ghazalli
  Problem statement: Environment issue on the dumping of used household product is a big challenge nowadays. Towards green design, life cycle of a product is very crucial. This study discussed on recycling strategies which include reuse, service, remanufacture and recycle with or without disassembly by using Support Vector Machine Method (SVM). Approach: In early stage of prediction, the input parameters of wear-out life; technology cycle, level of integration, number of parts, reason for redesign and design cycle were incorporated. Six household equipments were studied includes vacuum cleaner, washing machine, television, portable radio and hand held vacuum. Results: The end life predicted results were compared with the previous literature study. Conclusion: The developed End Of Life (EOL) strategies model is good in agreement with existing industry practice.
  M.M. Rahman , Khalaf I. Hamada , M.M. Noor , Rosli A. Bakar , K. Kadirgama and M.A. Maleque
  Problem statement: The variation of the in-cylinder gas flow characteristics for single cylinder port injection hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine was investigated through transient state simulation. Approach: One dimensional gas dynamics was described the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine model. Special attention is paid to selection and correction of heat transfer correlation which describe of in-cylinder heat transfer to coincide with the practical observations. The engine model was simulated with variable engine speed and Air Fuel Ratio (AFR). Engine speed varied from 2000-5000 rpm with increment equal to 1000 rpm, while AFR changed from stoichiometric to lean limit. Results: The acquired results showed that the maximum in-cylinder temperature and pressure obtained of 2753 K and 49.62 bar at 24°CA ATDC and 13°CA ATDC for AFR = 34.33 respectively, while the minimum in-cylinder temperature and pressure obtained of 1366 K and 29.14 bar at 18 deg CA of ATDC and 8 deg CA of ATDC for AFR = 171.65 respectively. The obtained results show that AFR has a crucial effect on characteristics variation during the power cycle whilst engine speed has minor effects. Conclusion: These results utilized for study the combustion process, fuel consumption, emission production and engine performance.
  Rosli A. Bakar , Mohammed K. Mohammed and M.M. Rahman
  This study was focused on the engine performance of single cylinder hydrogen fueled port injection internal combustion engine. GT-Power was utilized to develop the model for port injection engine. One dimensional gas dynamics was represented the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine model. The governing equations were introduced first, followed by the performance parameters and model description. Air-fuel ratio was varied from stoichiometric limit to a lean limit and the rotational speed varied from 2500 to 4500 rpm while the injector location was considered fixed in the midway of the intake port. The effects of air fuel ratio, crank angle and engine speed are presented in this study. From the acquired results show that the air-fuel ratio and engine speed were greatly influence on the performance of hydrogen fueled engine. It was shown that decreases the Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) and brake thermal efficiency with increases of the engine speed and air-fuel ratio however the increase the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) with increases the speed and air-fuel ratio. The cylinder temperature increases with increases of engine speed however temperature decreases with increases of air-fuel ratio. The pressure fluctuations increased substantially with increases of speed at intake port however rise of pressure at the end of the exhaust stroke lead to reverse flow into the cylinder past exhaust valve. The fluctuation amplitude responded to the engine speed in case of exhaust pressure were given less than the intake pressure. The volumetric efficiency increased with increases of engine speed and equivalent ratio. The volumetric efficiency of the hydrogen engines with port injection is a serious problem and reduces the overall performance of the engine. This emphasized the ability of retrofitting the traditional engines with hydrogen fuel with minor modifications.
  M.M. Rahman , M.G. Rasul and M.M.K. Khan
  In this study, various energy conservation measures (ECMs) on heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems for a four-storied institutional building in sub-tropical (hot and humid climate) Queensland, Australia are evaluated using the simulation software called DesignBuilder (DB). Base case scenario of energy consumption profiles of existing systems are analysed and simulated first then, the simulated results are verified by on-site measured data. Three categories of ECMs, namely major investment ECMs (variable air volume (VAV) systems against constant air volume (CAV); and low coefficient of performance (COP) chillers against high COP chillers); minor investment ECMs (photo electric dimming control system against general lighting, and double glazed low emittance windows against single-glazed windows) and zero investment ECMs (reset heating and cooling set point temperatures) are evaluated. It is found that the building considered in this study can save up to 41.87% energy without compromising occupancies thermal comfort by implementing the above mentioned ECMs into the existing system.
  M.M. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah , W.E. Wan Khadijah , T. Nakagawa and R. Akashi
  The high costs of commercial concentrates limit livestock production in South-east Asia. The efficient use of local feed resources may minimize the costs and improve the productivity. Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) contains moderate levels of protein and energy, which is considered sufficient to meet the requirements of most ruminants. However, its protein degradability in the rumen is high resulting in losing its function as protein source for ruminant. This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of feeding molasses protected PKC and soya waste on intake, nutrient digestibility and growth performance of young female goats. Eight goats were divided into 2 groups and allocated to respective feeding treatments. The treatments were T1 = napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)+1.0% commercial pellet of live weight (LW) and T2 = napier grass+1.0% PKC of LW+100 g molasses+55 g soya waste. The results indicated that the T1 treatment increased (p<0.05) napier grass Dry matter (DM) intake (370 vs. 295 g day-1) compared to T2 treatment but the total intakes of DM (584 vs. 668 g day-1), organic matter (OM) (532 vs. 585 g day-1), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) (308 vs. 344 g day-1) and crude protein (CP) (59.2 vs. 58.9 g day-1) were similar (p>0.05) for both treatments, respectively. The T1 treatment also increased (p<0.05) apparent digestibility of DM (64.1 vs. 56.3%), OM (67.3 vs. 58.9%), NDF (55.9 vs. 45.2%) and CP (68.4 vs. 52.1%) compared to T2 treatment, but they had no effect (p>0.05) on average daily gain (59.0 vs. 72.1 g day-1) and feed conversion ratio (10.4 vs. 9.6), respectively. It is concluded that supplementing a napier grass-based diet with molasses protected PKC and soya waste can be used as source of protein and energy, exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.
  M.M. Rahman , M. Ikeue , M. Niimi , R.B. Abdullah , W.E. Wan Khadijah , K. Fukuyama and O. Kawamura
  A survey of oxalate and its related mineral contents in selected fodder plants was conducted in two regions of subtropical Okinawa, Japan and of tropical Savar and Shahzadpur, Bangladesh. A total of 31 samples were taken from 13 fodder species in Okinawa, Southern part of Japan and of 63 samples from 27 fodder species in Bangladesh. The data of both regions revealed that the majority of fodder plants accumulated lower contents of oxalate than the critical level for toxicity at more than 20 g kg-1 DM, while few fodder species (Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria mutica) in Bangladesh and only Setaria sphacelata in southern part of Japan reached this critical level. In most of the cases, no relationship was found between oxalate and mineral contents in the plants tested. The results from the present study demonstrate that the oxalate content in tropical fodder species may vary in a wide range, mainly depending on plant species. To be noted is that some fodder species could accumulate oxalate at so high content as might be toxic to ruminants in certain conditions.
  M.M. Kamal , M.M. Rahman , H.W. Momont and M. Shamsuddin
  The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the underlying disorders and effective treatment of postpartum anoestrus. Rectal examination accompanied by ultrasonography was performed twice in a 10-day interval on crossbred (HolsteinxZebu) anoestrus cows at = 60 days postpartum to diagnose their cyclic status. Cows diagnosed as silent estrus and true anoestrus were allotted to different treatment and Artificial Insemination (AI) protocols. The pregnancy was diagnosed thereafter by ultrasonography between 30-35 days post AI. The prevalence of anoestrus was 18.5% (83 out of 448 cows) as reported by the farmers with silent estrus 53.0% (n = 44), true anoestrus 42.2% (n = 35), cystic ovarian disease 2.4% (n = 2) and uterine infections 2.4% (n = 2) as the underlying disorders. Treatment of silent estrus was revealed estrus and conception; respectively, in 52 and 43% cows carefully monitored of estrus signs for AI (Group I, n = 23) and in 73 and 45% prostaglandin treated cows with AI on observed estrus (Group II, n = 11). Prostaglandin treatment followed by timed AI with GnRH administration at first AI (Group III, n = 10) revealed 60% conception. The difference in rates of conception was not significant among different treatment groups (p>0.05). Treatment of true anoestrus was revealed estrus and conception; respectively, in 82 and 64% nutritionally supplemented cows (Group IV, n = 11) and in 50 and 40% suckling restricted cows (Group V, n = 10). GnRH treatment followed by PGF2α administration and timed AI with GnRH at first AI (Group VI, n = 9) revealed 44% conception. Control anoestrus cows (Group VII, n = 5) without any treatment did not show estrus. The difference in rates of conception was significant (p<0.05) between the groups. In conclusions, close monitoring of silent estrous cows for estrus and nutritional supplementation for true anoestrus could be effective tools for successful reproduction.
  M.M. Rahman , M.N. Amin , H.S. Jahan and R. Ahmed
  Sprouted rhizome buds were collected from the field grown one year old rhizomes and surface sterilized by treating them with 0.1% HgCl2 for 14 min. The dissected rhizome bud explants (ca.1 cm) of turmeric were cultured in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinin and auxin. The best result towards development of multiple shoot from the cultured explants was obtained when MS medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg l-1 of BA. Rooting experiments with half strength of MS medium and various concentrations of NAA, IBA and IAA revealed that 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 of any auxins was found to be effective for rooting. But root forming performance of IBA was proved to be the best among the three auxins tested. Rooted shoots (plantlets) were gradually acclimatized and successfully established in plastic pot containing garden soil under natural condition. About 70% of the transplanted plantlets survived and were eventually established in the field.
  M.M. Rahman , M.N. Amin , T. Ahamed , M. R. Ali and A. Habib
  Somatic embryogenesis and subsequent plantlets regeneration were achieved in callus cultures established from the leaf base explants of Kaempferia galanga L. Callus induction and somatic embryogenesis at various frequencies were observed using different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. The highest percentage of callus induction was observed on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 2,4-D+1.0 mg L-1 BA. After transfer on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA+0.1 mg L-1 NAA, this callus produced small globular embryos first that later developed into plantlets by further subculturing on the same medium. Plantlets were acclimatized and subsequently transferred to the field. Survival rate of the plantlets under ex vitro condition was 85%.
  M.J. Islam , A.K.M.M. Hossain , F. Khanam , U.K. Majumder , M.M. Rahman and M. Saifur Rahman
  To study the effect of mulching and fertilizer management practices on the growth and yield of garlic, an experiment was conducted using three kinds of mulches viz., black polyethylene, straw and water-hyacinth with a control and three types of fertilizer management practices viz., cow dung (F1), urea + TSP + MP (F2) and urea + TSP + MP + cow dung (F3) were compared with no fertilizer/manure. Plants grown under black polyethylene, water hyacinth and straw mulches were produced the yields of 5.80, 5.70 and 5.48 t ha-1, respectively which were 39, 36.6 and 31.41% higher than the control (4.17 t ha-1). The effect of black polyethylene and water hyacinth mulch were almost similar on the growth and yield of garlic. On the other hand, the crops growing with urea + TSP + MP and urea + TSP + MP + cow dung and only cow dung gave yields of 6.36, 6.03 and 5.23 t ha-1, respectively which showed about 80.68, 71.30 and 48.57% increased over the control (3.52 t ha-1). The interaction effects of mulching and fertilizers did not exhibit significant variations. Though the application of black polyethylene mulch is somewhat hazardous, if it is possible to use the water hyacinth and black polyethylene mulch along with F2 and F3 were suitable for increasing production.
  M.Z. Karim , S. Yokota , M.M. Rahman , J. Eizawa , Y. Saito , M.A.K. Azad , F. Ishiguri , K. Iizuka and N. Yoshizawa
  The optimum sucrose concentration and pH level were estimated for in vitro shoot regeneration from callus of Aralia elata Seem in a Broad-leaved tree (BT) medium with different concentrations of sucrose (0.0-25.0 g L-1) and a wide range of pH levels (4.5-6.8). The highest rate of shoot production was achieved in a shoot-regenerating medium with 15 g L-1 sucrose and a pH of 5.8. Shoot multiplication and growth were significantly affected by sucrose. Shoots were not formed in a sucrose-free medium. When the pH was adjusted below or above 5.8, the growth rate of the shoot significantly decreased.
  M.M. Rahman and M.M. Hossain
  Optimum plant density of soybean varies with geographic location and variety. The present study was undertaken with a view to optimize plant density of two soybean varieties using equidistant planting patter to obtain higher yield. The experiments were conducted in three consecutive seasons viz., Rabi 2004-05, Kharif 2005 and Rabi 2005-06 at Mymensingh, Bangladesh with two soybean varieties G-2 and PB-1 and six plant densities viz., 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 plants m-2 established using an equidistant planting pattern of 22.4x22.4 cm, 15.8x15.8 cm, 12.9x12.9 cm, 10.0x 10.0 cm and 9.1x 9.1 cm, respectively. Seed yield increased with increase of plant density up to 80 to 100 plants m-2 depending on variety and season. The increase in plant density decreased yield components such as number of pods plant-1, seeds pod-1 and 100-seed weight as well as seed yield plant-1. The soybean seed yield was positively correlated with total dry matter and leaf area index. The present study concludes that the highest soybean yield could be possible with a plant density of 80-100 plants m-2 depending upon variety, season and related agronomic management options.
  M.A. Salam , M.M.A. Patwary , M.M. Rahman , M.D. Hossain and M. Saifullah
  A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the relative costs and return in Mukhi kachu cv. Bilashi production as influenced by different levels of urea and MP fertilizers and their time of application. Four levels of urea and MP fertilizers viz., F0, F1, F2 and F3 and four times of application were used in this investigation. Different doses of urea and MP fertilizer and their time of application had significant influence on yield of Mukhi Kachu. The combination of the highest level of urea and MP fertilizer (300 kg each of urea and MP/ha) and application of 1/3 dose each at 60, 100 and 140 DAP gave the highest yield of corms (7.20 t. ha-1) and cormels (47.89 t. ha-1). The highest gross return, net return and the best economic return (BCR) were Tk. 205820 ha-1, Tk. 125905 ha1 and 2.58, respectively obtained from the same treatment.
  M.M. Rahman , A. Naqi Shah and F.C. Oad
  The field experiment was conducted to compare the banding method of fertilizer application with the broadcast at Vegetable Research Station, SHRI Mirpurkhas, Pakistan. The recommended 250-125-125 NPK kg ha-1 were applied in the form of Urea, DAP and SOP. The application of NPK through banding showed better results for more number of plants and stems. The maximum soil coverage percentage, tuber number and weight of marketable tubers increased significantly than broadcast fertilizer method of application.
  Tahseen A. Tahseen , M. Ishak and M.M. Rahman
  In the present study, the numerical analysis is two-dimensional steady state Navier-stokes equations and the energy equation governing laminar incompressible flow are solved using the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the technique Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC). The constant heat flux is imposed on the surface of the tubes as the thermal boundary condition. The arrangement is considered in-line tube-banks the transverse ratio ST/D and longitudinal pitch-to-diameter ratio SL/D of 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25, respectively are also considered. Reynolds numbers of 30, 125 and 200 and Prandtl number is taken as 0.71. The temperature contours, local Nusselt number distributions at the tube surface and mean Nusselt number were analyzed in this study. It was found of that the strength of the heat transfer between the surface of tubes and the air flow increases with increasing Reynolds number and increasing pitch-to-diameter the ratio.
  K.U. Ahmed , M.M. Rahman , M.Z. Alam , M.M. Hossain and M.G. Miah
  The study on host preference of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer is of great interest, because it is a polyphagous pest and preferred middle aged jackfruit trees. In this study the incidence of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer in relation to different age groups of Jackfruit trees was evaluated. The investigation was done in Gazipur, Gaibandha and Khagrachhari districts of Bangladesh. Host preference of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer among five age groups (<10, 10-20, 21-30, 31-40 and >40 years) of jackfruit trees was conducted during 2009-2011 in farmers’ orchards. For different age groups were considered as treatments and the three districts were considered as replications. The trunk infestation was the highest (45.87%) in Gazipur for age group 10-20 years which was statistically identical (45.06%) with age group 21-30 years. The lowest infestation was 21.38% for the age group of above 40 years. However, between other two districts the infestation was the highest (27.97%) in Gaibandha in 10-20 years age group which is statistically similar (26.65%) with 21-30 years age group. The lowest infestation was found in below 10 years group (3.81%). In Khagrachhari where the highest infestation was 27.16% in 21-30 years age group and the lowest (17.06%) was in age group below 10 years. The order of host age preference was 10-20>21-30>31-40>below 10 and >above 40 years.
  M.M. Islam , D. Biswas , M.M. Rahman and M.A. Haque
  Twenty star crossbred broilers of 5 weeks age were taken and divided into 4 groups to know the suitable method of fracture immolization. The fixation devices used were adhesive tape with wood splint, intramedullary pinning and dynamic compression plate with cortical screws and one group as control kept in case rest. To monitor the healing status, the radiographs were taken at 3rd, 4th and 6th postoperative weeks. Minimal fracture gap, callus formation and excellent alignment were found in dynamic compression plate. Fracture gap reduces significantly (P<0.01) with small callus formation and good alignment in dynamic compression plate group but similar result along with larger callus found in intramedullary group. The present study suggested that dynamic compression plate is the best method for fixation of fractured bone in birds.
  M.Z. Karim , M.N. Amin , M.A.K. Azad , F. Begum , M.M. Rahman , S. Ahmad and R. Alam
  Effects of sucrose, agar and pH on in vitro shoot multiplication of Chrysanthemum were studied. Nodal explant from the ex vitro grown plant was used as the test material. For optimum shoot induction and multiplication in MS medium containing BAP+ sucrose 30 gm l-1, agar 6 gm l-1 and pH 5.5-6.0 proved more effective. The media having 30 gm l-1 sucrose showed the highest percentage of explant responded to shoot proliferation and that was 100%. This sucrose concentration also showed the optimum result for number of usable shoots per culture, number of node shoot-1 and average length of shoots and the values were 5.4±0.6, 5.1±0.8 and 5.6±0.4 cm. The highest proliferation response of the explant was observed on MS medium having 6 gm l-1 of agar and the frequency was 100%. Among different level of pH, the highest percentage of explant showing proliferation was observed on the media adjusted to pH 5.5 and 6.0. The results presented here proved to be suitable for the in vitro shoot multiplication of Chrysanthemum morifolium.
  W.A. Wan Noorina , D. Abdullah , C.L. Goo and M.M. Rahman
  Background and Objective: Infection control measures are applied to all healthcare practitioners including dental practitioners. There was aimed to assess the compliance and level of awareness of infection control practices among clinical dental students in three major public universities in Malaysia. Methodology: Data was collected by means of a self-administered, close-ended questionnaire with a response rate of 62%. Results: The results indicated that the students were generally compliant with the infection control practices with good compliance in certain areas such as usage of rubber dam for endodontic work (96.7%), hand-washing practices (91.2%) and use of facemask in dental procedures (93%). However, certain infection control issues such as dealing with needle stick injuries (18.3%) and waste disposal (37.7%) were less than ideal. Conclusion: It is thus recommended that all items of infection control measures should be given due emphasis in the curriculum and to be followed by close monitoring by supervisors.
  M.S. Islam , M.M. Rahman , Z. Begum and M.Z. Hafiz
  Irreversible logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector can not be uniquely recovered from the output vector. Theoretically reversible logic dissipates zero power since the input vector of reversible circuit can be uniquely recovered from the output vector. Reversible computation has applications in digital signal processing, low power CMOS design, DNA computing and quantum computing. This study presents an overview of the well-known reversible gates and discuss about their quantum implementation. A new PFAG gate and its quantum implementation are presented. Finally, this study proposes a novel low cost quantum realization of reversible multiplier circuit and compares its superiority with the existing counterparts.
  M.M. Rahman , M.A. Awal , A. Amin and M.R. Parvej
  An experiment was conducted to analyse the interspecies compatibility and production potentials of mustard and lentil in intercrop association. The experiment comprised four planting systems viz., sole mustard, sole lentil, single row (1:1 i.e., one row of mustard followed by one row of lentil) and double row (1:2 i.e., one row of mustard followed by two rows of lentil) intercropping. The stands height and number of branches (primary and secondary) per plant were maximum and minimum in sole and single row intercropped plants, respectively. Higher leaf area index and total dry matter production was observed in sole cropped mustard or lentil while those were lower in 1:2 intercropped mustard or 1:1 intercropped lentil plants. Maximum seed yield, 1.26 t ha-1 (or 1.30 t ha-1) was harvested from sole crop of mustard (or lentil) which was about 40 and 48% (or 34 and 12%) higher than that of the mustard (or lentil) yield obtained from single and double row intercrop mixtures, respectively. Combined seed yield from double row mixture was the maximum (1.8 t ha-1) and was respectively 11, 30 or 28% higher than that obtained from single row intercropped stands, sole mustard or lentil. Single and double row intercropping systems respectively resulted 25 or 41% increase in land equivalent ratios. Area time equivalency ratio was also increased by about 14 and 31%, respectively for single and double row intercropping systems. The competitive ratio of each population is approached to be unity in both intercropping systems reflecting the proper balance of the natural resources between associated species resulted better yield. The results suggest that mustard and lentil populations are well compatible in intercrop association and 1:2 row ratio mixture would be better for their profitable production.
  M.Z. Karim , S. Yokota , M.M. Rahman , J. Eizawa , Y. Saito , M.A.K. Azad , F. Ishiguri , K. Iizuka and N. Yoshizawa
  A highly reproducible in vitro shoot regeneration system in Aralia elata Seem. using root explants was developed in this investigation. Multiple shoots were induced in vitro directly from root explants through adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The ability of root explants to produce shoot buds depended on the supplementation of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs). Maximum multiplication of shoots (18 shoots per explant) was achieved in a Broad-leaved Tree (BT) medium supplemented with 1.00 μM 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). The best and healthiest rooting was observed in a BT medium supplemented with 2.00 μM μ-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized under ex vitro condition.
  G.M. Nooruddin , M.T. Rahman , M. Mohammad and M.M. Rahman
  A total number of 224 cloacal swabs were examined for hemagglutinating activity from 4 different poultry farms of Noakhali district in Bangladesh. Out of the total samples 15 exhibited positive reactions with chicken erythrocytes. Among the 15 positive samples, 11 were found to be positive for Newcastle disease virus. The highest (100%) prevalence of Newcastle disease virus was found in Ram Nagar union and the lowest (66.66%) were found in Rajapur union. Seventy five percent prevalence was found in Jaylashker and Matubhuyian union. The overall prevalence of Newcastle disease virus was found to be 79.17% in the four unions. No egg drop syndrome virus and avian influenza viruses were identified in the samples those gave positive result in hemaggluntination test.
  M. Muktaruzzaman , M.G. Haider , A.K.M. Ahmed , K.J. Alam , M.M. Rahman , M.B. Khatun , M.H. Rahman and M.M. Hossain
  Salmonella infections are major problems for the poultry farming in Bangladesh. The cultural method to identify avian Salmonella infections is laborious and expensive, thus a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for the diagnosis of salmonellosis is anticipated. In the present investigation Salmonella pullorum organisms was obtained from the Department of Pathology and it was characterized by culture, biochemical tests and PCR. A neotetrazolium stained Salmonella pullorum antigen was prepared from local isolate of Salmonella pullorum. The protein concentration of stained antigen was measured by BSA standard curve. Prepared antigen was diluted in 2 fold dilution and minimum 72.5 μg/μl antigen concentration showed the positive reaction. Different preservatives (0.5% phenolized saline, 0.5% formalized saline and 0.09% sodium azide) were used to maintain the shelf life of prepared antigen. All the preservatives showed the similar results up to six months. Slide agglutination tests were carried out with un-diluted and diluted anti-sera having known ELISA titre and end point agglutination titre was determined. Serum titre 13942-21362 gave positive result to 2-5 fold dilution of serum and serum titre 412-771 showed negative result. Different groups of antigens were developed while antigen group-1 (48 h bacterial culture treated with 24 h in neotetrazolium and 2 h in thiomersal) gave the striking positive result. As Group-1 antigen exhibited highest protein concentration (1240 μg/μl) and gave the best result with positive sera, so it was selected for field trial. The seroprevalence of Salmonella infection was 44.39% in a particular poultry farm. The stained antigen was then stored at 4oC. As all used preservatives revealed similar trend of results, so it may be recommend that 0.5% phenolized saline as preservative because it is cost effective. In the present study, the slide agglutination test was found easy, sensitive, reliable, cost and time effective and needed very small amount of antigen, sera and as well as accessories. Salmonella pullorum antigen from a local isolate was successfully developed which could be used to screen the Salmonella infection in the poultry flocks at the farm premises. It may also be used to determine the antibody titer of the vaccinated flocks.
  Umi Ali , Ilina Isahak and M.M. Rahman
  The present case discusses about an elderly gentleman who contracted the disease following a visit to area reported to have chikungunya outbreak in Malaysia. He had severe, incapacitating arthralgia and swelling of both hands and elbow joint as well as rash and high grade fever. His serum was tested for both dengue and chikungunya fevers as the symptoms of both the cases were overlapping. In the present case some classical clinical features such as fever, arthralgia and rash were noted. Laboratory result revealed positive for chikungunya IgM on day 5 of illness. Laboratory confirmation is essential to ensure correct diagnosis of chikungunya.
  M.M. Rahman , Mohamad Amran Mohd. Salleh , Amimul Ahsan , J.E. Lee and C.S. Ra
  In vitro fermentation of available 36 feeds was performed to assess the quality by investigating the methane (CH4) production rate. For this purpose, a fermentation reactor was designed to capture the CH4 gas emitted and to collect liquor from the reactor during in vitro fermentation. The result showed that the CH4 production rate was greatly vary in different feed ingredients. The lowest CH4 producing feeds were corn gluten feed, brewer’s grain and alfalfa straw among all energy, protein and forage feeds, respectively. Significant differences were found in CH4 emissions (p<0.01) in different feed ingredients during the 48 h of in vitro fermentation. Finally, an economically viable and eco-friendly dairy ration was suggested that would be produced a much less CH4 than that of commercial dairy rations. Suggested dairy ration might be reduced CH4 emission as well as global warming.
  B.C. Roy , M.R.I. Khan , M.M. Rahman , Mohamad Amran Mohd. Salleh , Amimul Ahsan and M.R. Amin
  Massive amount of rumen content and blood were produced from the slaughtered animal in a single day of Eid-ul-Azha in Bangladesh that creates an unhygienic and hazardous environment at that time. A convenient composting method can efficiently utilized these rumen contents and blood. For this purpose, three different treatments mentioned as rumen content only (T1), rumen content with biogas slurry (T2) and rumen content with cattle blood (T3) were studied with 3 replications for anaerobic composting. The parameters studied were Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), Carbon Nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio), Crude Fiber (CF), Ether Extract (EE), Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE), ash and pH. The result revealed that amount of CP was higher in T3 (17.43%) followed by T2 (16.27%) after 90 days of anaerobic composting and the differences were significant (p<0.01) among treatment groups. Initial and final C/N ratios were 33.46 and 31.42, 27.66 and 23.88 and 27.93 and 22.83 in case of T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Final C/N ratio showed the significant difference (p<0.01) among different treatment groups. The pH of the final compost was significantly increased in T3 (22%) followed by T2 (20%).
  S. Abdullah , N.A. Al-Asady , A.K. Ariffin and M.M. Rahman
  This research describes the majority of interesting findings in the use of the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based fatigue for automotive components in a form of review write-up. Thus, the theoretical background related to the fatigue life prediction using FEA is presented which is the main subject of this research. The challenge for FEA-based software developers is to deliver reliable fatigue-analysis tools because over designing components is no longer a viable option. Combination between a fatigue model based on the crack initiation, the crack growth and the crack closures are performed with consideration of cycle sequence effect together with finite element results, which lead to the prediction of fatigue life under spectrum or service loadings.
  S. Abdullah , S.M. Beden , A.K. Ariffin and M.M. Rahman
  This study presents an analysis technique to asses the fatigue life of a shell structure under variable amplitude loadings (VAL). For this purpose, the finite element analysis technique was used for the simulation works. The life prediction results are useful for improving the component design methodology at the early developing stage especially for shell structures such as a pressure vessels or pipelines analysis. The fatigue life prediction was performed using the finite element based fatigue analysis codes. In addition the ability of stress-life (S-N) and strain-life (ε-N) approaches to correlate and predict life are examined according to the different damage and failure rules. Numerical life prediction results (S-N and ε-N) of shells under VAL, as well as Constant Amplitude Loading (CAL) are presented and discussed. The effect of the mean stress, surface finish and the shell thickness are studied and discussed as apart of the interactions between geometries, loadings and materials. The simulation results showed that more studies on the shell structure need to be performed in order to obtain more accurate fatigue life.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , S. Abdullah , M.M. Noor , R.A. Bakar and M.A. Maleque
  This study describes the finite element based fatigue life prediction of cylinder head for a two-stroke free piston linear engine subjected to variable amplitude loading, applicable to electric power generation. A set of aluminum alloys, cast iron and forged steel for cylinder head are considered in this study. The finite element modeling and analysis were performed utilizing the finite element analysis codes. The fatigue life analysis was carried out using finite element based fatigue analysis commercial codes. Fatigue stress-life approach was used when the piston is subjected to variable amplitude at different loading conditions. The effects of mean stress and sensitivity analysis on fatigue life are discussed. From the results, it was shown that the Goodman mean stress correction method is predicted more conservative (minimum life) results. It was found to differ significantly the compressive and tensile mean stresses. The compressive mean stress are beneficial however tensile mean stress detrimental to the fatigue life. The effect of materials and components S-N was also investigated and not found to give any large advantages, however the effect of certainty of survival was found to give noticeable advantages and it concluded that the 99.9% are fond to be design criteria. The proposed technique is capable of determining premature products failure phenomena.
  M.M. Rahman , Mohammed K. Mohammed and Rosli A. Bakar
  This study was investigated the effect of air-fuel ratio (AFR) and engine speed on performance of the single cylinder hydrogen fueled port injection engine. GT-Power was utilized to develop the computational model for port injection engine. One dimensional gas dynamics model was represented the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine. Throughout the study, air-fuel ratio was varied from stoichiometric mixture to lean. The engine speeds were varied from 2500 to 4500 rpm. The results show that the air-fuel ratio and engine speed were greatly influence on the performance of hydrogen fueled engine especially Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). It was shown that decreases of the BMEP and brake thermal efficiency with increases of the engine speed and air-fuel ratio while the increases of the BSFC with increases of the speed and air-fuel ratio. The cylinder temperature increases with increases of engine speed however temperature decreases with increases of air-fuel ratio. The volumetric efficiency increases with increases of engine speed and equivalent ratio. The volumetric efficiency of the hydrogen engines with port injection is serious problem and reduces the overall performance of the engine. This emphasized the ability of retrofitting the traditional engines with hydrogen fuel with minor modifications.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , M.R.M. Rejab , K. Kadirgama and M.M. Noor
  This study was presented the assessment of multiaxial fatigue criteria of cylinder head for a free piston linear engine using finite element analysis techniques. The structural solid modeling of cylinder head was developed utilizing the computer-aided design software. The finite element modeling and analysis were performed utilizing the finite element analysis codes. The biaxiality analysis was performed to assess the multiaxial fatigue. The material parameter and Hoffmann-Seeger methods were considered to modify the uniaxial material properties. Prediction of fatigue life, effect of the stress combination for the proportional loading condition was investigated in this study. It can be seen that the biaxiality correction method gives conservative predicted life as compared to the uniaxial loading. The materials parameter correction method gives most conservative prediction with SWT criteria. It is also observed that more conservative prediction to use Signed Tresca parameter and Signed von Mises stress gives the result that lie between the absolute maximum principal and signed Tresca results. This approach shows to be quite suitable for integration with a commercial finite element code to provide for an integrated design environment for fatigue life evaluation under general multiaxial loading conditions.
  K. Kadirgama , M.M. Noor , M.M. Rahman , Rosli A. Bakar and Abou-El Hossein
  This study presents the development of mathematical models for torque in end-milling of AISI 618. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used to predict the effect of torque in the end-milling. The relationship between the manufacturing process factors including the cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth and radial depth with the torque can be developed. The effect of the factors can be investigated from the equation developed for first order to fourth order model. The acquired results show that the torque increases with decreases of the cutting speed and increases the feed rate, axial depth and radial depth. It found that the second order is more accurate based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the predicted torque results is closely match with the experimental results. Third- and fourth-order model generated for the response to investigate the 3 and 4-way interaction between the factors. It’s found less significant for the variables.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , N. Jamaludin , S. Abdullah and M.M. Noor
  This study presents the finite element based fatigue life prediction of a new free piston linear generator engine mounting. The objective of this research is to assess the critical fatigue locations on the component due to loading conditions. The effects of mean stress and probabilistic nature on the fatigue life are also investigated. Materials SAE 1045-450-QT and SAE 1045-595-QT are considered in this study. The finite element modeling and analysis was performed using computer-aided design and finite element analysis codes. In addition, the fatigue life prediction was carried out utilizing the finite element based fatigue code. Total-life approach and crack initiation approach were applied to predict the fatigue life of the free piston linear engine mounting. The results show the contour plots of fatigue life and damage histogram at the most damaging case. The comparison between the total-life approach and crack initiation approach were investigated. From the results, it can be concluded that Morrow mean stress correction method gives the most conservative (less life) results for crack initiation method. It can be seen that SAE 1045-595-QT material gives consistently higher life than SAE 1045-450-QT material for all loading conditions for both methods.
  M.M. Rahman , K.I. Hamada , M.M. Noor , K. Kadirgama , M.A. Maleque and R.A. Bakar
  This study presents a comparative study of heat transfer characteristics in intake port for spark ignition engine using hydrogen and methane as a fuel. The fuels are led to the different behavior of physical processes during the engine cycle. One-dimensional gas dynamics was used to describe the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine model. The engine model has been simulated with variable engine speed and equivalence ratio (φ). Engine speed has been varied from 2000 to 5000 rpm with increment of 1000 rpm, while equivalence ratio has been changed from stoichiometric to lean limit. The baseline engine model has been verified with existing previous published results. The obtained results are shown that the engine speed has the same effect on the heat transfer coefficient for hydrogen and methane fuel; while equivalence ratio is effect on heat transfer coefficient in case of hydrogen fuel only. Rate of increase in heat transfer coefficient comparison with stoichiometric case for hydrogen fuel are: 4% for (φ = 0.6) and 8% for (φ = 0.2). While negligible effect was found in case of methane fuel with change of equivalence ratio. But methane is given greater values about 11% for all engine speed values compare with hydrogen fuel under stoichiometric condition. The blockage phenomenon affects the heat transfer process dominantly in case of hydrogen fuel; however the forced convection was influencing the heat transfer process for hydrogen and methane cases.
  H.H. Habeeb , K. Kadirgama , M.M. Noor , M.M. Rahman , B. Mohammad , R.A. Bakar and K.A. Abouel Hossein
  This study discusses the development of first and second order of surface roughness prediction model when machining Haynes 242 alloy with Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) at dry condition. The relationship between the cutting parameters (cutting speed, axial depth and feedrate) with surface roughness are discussed. Response Surface Method (RSM) has been selected to optimize the cutting parameters and reduce the number of experiments. Surface roughness obtained in these experiments ranged from 0.052-0.08 μm, which consider as an extremely fine finish. Increase in cutting speed from 70 to 300 m min-1, the roughness getting finer. On other hand, increase in feedrate (0.1 to 0.3 mm tooth-1) and axial depth (0.025 to 0.075 mm) surface roughness become rougher.
  E. Suali , H.A. Abdul Bari , Z. Hassan and M.M. Rahman
  Power saving is the major reason to study the problem of drag in transporting system. The performance of glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-nonylphenyl ether as drag reducing anionic surfactant was studied experimentally in closed loop circulation system at room temperature. The major investigated variables is operation flow rate which from 11235 to 78645 Re and the solution concentration (ppm), which 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600, respectively. The selected ratio of testing pipe length to diameter (L/D) is equal to 59. The specific conductivity test was conducted to find the CMC of anionic surfactant. It was found that the CMC occurred within the range of 100 to 200 ppm of solution. The maximum drag reduction can be achieved up to 14%. The critical Re was found at 33705 to 56175. The alignment of micelle with the eddies in turbulent flow was identified as the source of drag reduction in pipes.
  M.M. Rahman , M.A.R. Khan , K. Kadirgama , M.M. Noor and R.A. Bakar
  This study presents the experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of austenitic stainless steel 304 through electric discharge machining. The effectiveness of the EDM process with stainless steel is evaluated in terms of the removal rate (MRR), the Tool Wear Rate (TWR) and the surface roughness of the work-piece produced. The experimental work is conducted utilizing Die Sinking electrical discharge machine of AQ55L model. Cylindrical copper electrode having a size of Ø19x37 mm and positive polarity for electrode (reverse polarity) is used to machine austenitic stainless steel 304 materials. The work material holds tensile strength of 580 and 290 MPa as yield strength. The size of the work-piece was Ø22x30 mm. Investigations indicate that increasing the peak current increases the MRR and the surface roughness. The TWR increases with peak ampere until 150 μ sec pulse-on time. From the experimental results no tool wear condition is noted for copper electrode at long pulse-on time with reverse polarity. The optimal pulse-on time is changed with high ampere.
  M.M. Rahman , G.C. Paul and A. Hoque
  A cyclone induced storm surge forecasting system has been developed for the coast of Bangladesh. The coast of Bangladesh has a specialty in terms of high bending and many off-shore islands. Incorporation of the coastline and island boundaries properly in the numerical scheme is essential for accurate estimation of water levels due to tide and surge. For that purpose, a model with doubly nested numerical schemes is developed in Cartesian coordinate system using vertically integrated shallow water equations. The developed system is applied on a severe cyclonic storm ‘AILA’ that hit Bangladesh on 25 May 2009. The computed peak sea-surface elevations along the coastal belt are in reasonable agreement with those observed.
  M.M. Rahman Khan , M.M. Rahman , M.S. Islam and S.A. Begum
  A simple UV-spectrophotometric method for the determination of the total vitamin C (ascorbic acid + dehydroascorbic acid) in various fruits and vegetables at Sylhet area is described. The spectrophotometric method involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid by bromine water in presence of acetic acid. After coupling with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine at 37 °C temperature for three hours, the solution is treated with 85% H2SO4 to produce a red color complex and the absorbance was spectrophotometrically measured at 521 nm. The content of vitamin C were 12 to 118 mg/100 g in fruits and 22 to 135 mg/100 g in vegetables. The percent recovery, statistical calculation and the possible interfering factors are also discussed.
  M.M. Rahman , M.N. Amin , M.A.K. Azad , F. Begum and M.Z. Karim
  Leaf segments from field grown mature plants of Elaeocarpus robustus Roxb. were used to initiate cultures for inducing callus and subsequent differentiation of shoot buds. Callus production was obtained within seven weeks and adventitious shoot formation was observed after five weeks of incubation on ½ MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 BA + 0.1 mg l-1 NAA + 15% CW. Complete plantlets were obtained upon transfer of shoot cuttings on ½ MS with 0.1-2.0 mg l-1 IBA, NAA, IAA or without any auxin. The best and healthy rooting was observed on ½ MS medium supplemented 0.2 mg l-1 IBA. In vitro regenerated plantlets were transferred to potting soil and successfully established under natural condition with about 60% survival.
  M.M. Rahman , H. Ferdowsy , M.A. Kashem and M.J. Foysal
  Tail and fin rot disease occurred in Indian major carp, catla (Catla catla) and climbing perch, koi (Anabas testudineus) in fish farms located at two districts of Bangladesh. The affected fish showed lesion and erosion on the tail and fins. Approximately, 40% mortality was recorded in those farms. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify the bacterial pathogen causing the disease, to conduct artificial infection challenge for confirmation of the pathogen and to know the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates. Bacteria were isolated from the lesions of diseased fish on Cytophaga agar medium where they developed characteristic yellowish pigmented colonies. They were identified as Flavobacterium columnare based on biochemical characterization tests. All of the isolates were found to be highly virulent for carp fish (Puntius gonionotus) in artificial infection challenge experiment but, virulence for koi fish (A. testudineus) were found to be varied. These isolates exhibited sensitivity to antibiotics chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, but some of them were resistant to sulphamethoxazole and all were resistant to gentamicin and cefradine.
  M.M. Rahman and A. Hafzath
  This study described the Condition factor, Length-Weight relationship, Gonadosomatic index and sex ratio of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) which is an important fish in the Kuantan coastal water, Malaysia. Data were obtained from December 2011-May 2012 and a total of 1064 Indian mackerel specimens were studied in this research. The result showed that male Indian mackerel was significantly more than female (χ2 = 7.91; p<0.01) in the population in the Kuantan coastal area. Length-Weight relationship of each month was significant (p<0.01) with all coefficients of determination (R2) values being higher than 0.72. The allometric coefficients (b) of length-weight relationship varied between 2.5128 (April) and 3.0807 (May). A negative allometric growth of Indian mackerel was observed in January, March and April. An isometric growth was observed in December and February while a positive allometric growth was observed only in May. The b-value of the length-weight relationship of Indian mackerel in April was very low compared to other month. The condition factor ranged from 1.0499-1.1320 and was significant difference between months (p<0.05). The significantly lowest mean condition factor was found in December and the highest in February and April. Overall higher mean condition factor was observed in smaller fish of both sex. The overall mean condition factor of female was better than male. Gonadosomatic index of Indian mackerel in February was higher than those observed in March and April and followed by May. Gonadosomatic index rapidly increased after January and reached at peak in February and decline after February. A positive relationship was observed between gonadosomatic index and condition factor of Indian mackerel. The peak spawning season of Indian mackerel in Kuantan coastal water was from February to April. The spawning season of Indian mackerel in Kuantan coastal water falls within the period between end of January and end of May.
  M.M. Rahman , I. Jusoh , A. Husaini , I.A. Seman and A.H.H. Wong
  Penetration of wood preservatives into the wood cell is believed to be important to protect the wood from biodegradation especially fungal degradation. Preservatives effectiveness depends on the amount of uptake or retention as well as its uniform distribution within the wood cells. Interest on organotin(IV) complexes both mono- and disubstituted organotin(IV) is increasing due to their interesting structural features, biocidal properties and environmentally friendly. The microdistribution of tin-based preservative in tropical woods was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analyzer. Bulk specimens of 1% organotin(IV)-treated cubes were used to examine the microdistribution of tin in Alstonia scholaris, Macaranga triloba and Hevea brasiliensis woods. Conventional SEM-EDX was able to detect spatial distribution of tin in wood microstructure. The SEM-EDX distribution maps and linescan analyses showed that the deposition of tin were uneven with respect to cell microstructure in all woods studied with relatively higher tin accumulation in the ray cells and middle lamella than in the fibre cell wall. The results indicated that ray as the penetration pathway of organotin(IV) solution into the wood microstructure capable of penetrating the cell wall.
  A.Yousuf Mian , M.M. Rahman , M.A.K. Mian , M.M. Hossain , M. S. Islam and M. Shahidul Islam
  Study the yield of ten new teasle gourd genotypes grown on different trellis with a view to identify a high yielding variety and an acceptable trellis suitable for easy hand pollination. Among ten genotypes developed through inter and intra sexual crosses, the genotypes TG 920722 were found superior and produced significantly higher yield (7.47 kg/plant) than all other genotypes. Different types of trellis e.g. Upright konchee trellis, Flat bamboo trellis and Vertical rope net trellis significantly influenced the yield attributes of teasle gourd genotypes. The vertical rope net trellis gave better results than all other trellis in respect of success of fruit setting, fruit length, fruit diameter, individual fruit weight, number of fruit per plant and fruit yield per plant.
  A.K.M. Parvez Iqbal , Ishak Aris , M.M. Rahman and Norhisam Misron
  In order to reduce the labor and production cost, linear motor operated automatic spray gun has been designed and developed. This spray gun consists of 2 spray units, spray unit holder and shaft assembly an air control and supply unit and a triggering unit to carry out the multiple spray operations. This study focuses on the design optimization and fabrication of the spray unit holder and shaft assembly. There are 2 links to this holder and they are 90° apart from each other. One end of the holder links are used to hold the spray units and the other ends are attached with a shaft. The shaft is kept in position in the spray gun body by the adjusting lever and can rotate 90° to either side. Due to this rotation, the position of spray units can be adjusted during the desired spray operation. Since, the highly pressurized fluid is passed through the spray unit, a high force is subjected to the end of the holder where the spray unit is held and the holder behaves like a cantilever beam. Meanwhile, the shaft is subjected to the bending moment and the torque due to the fluid pressure and the weight of the spray unit, respectively. After analyzing, dimensions and material selection have been optimized in order to fabricate the spray unit holder and shaft assembly. During the performance test, it is observed that the fabricated spray unit holder and shaft assembly can support the spray operation without any deflection and failure.
  M.A. Latif , M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam and M.M. Nuruddin
  Field experiment was conducted to study the arthropod biodiversity in the brinjal field during February to August. Twenty species of harmful arthropods under 17 families were observed belonging to 6 different orders. The brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis), jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula), epilachna beetle (Epilachna sp.) white fly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Aphis gossypii) were found as the most common and major insect pests of brinjal. Ten plant dwelling predaceous arthropod families were found in the field among them 42.44% were occupied by three families under Coleopteran insect. Spider under lycosidae family possessed 30.23%, which was ranked as the second most important arthropods. Surface dwelling arthropods caught in pitfall traps were grouped into 17 families among them 7 families were identified as predators. Formicidae was occupied 67% of the total surface dwelling predaceous arthropod.
  M.M. Rahman , S. Kadowaki , S.M. Linn and Y. Yamada
  Recirculating aquaculture systems can reduce many challenges associated with open culture systems but maintaining suitable water quality in recirculating system is difficult. Protein skimmer removes organic matter from the water before it breaks down into nitrogenous waste. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein skimming on water quality, bacterial abundance and abalone growth in recirculating aquaculture system. Two recirculating systems utilizing artificial seawater were housed in an air-conditioned, insulated recycle frozen container (4.3x1.9x1.9 m) to maintain optimum water temperature (19.2±0.8°C) for abalone growth. Each system consisted of two biofilters (100 and 200 L) and two abalone culture tanks (each 200 L) containing three plastic baskets (each 50x34x6 cm, with 12 mm mesh). One culture system incorporated a protein skimmer. Over an experimental period of 87 days, protein skimming resulted in significantly better water quality, heterotrophic bacterial abundance and abalone growth. Results indicate recirculating abalone culture systems with protein skimmer housed in an air-conditioned, insulated recycle frozen container may provide a viable alternative to current land-based, flow-through systems. More research is needed to further increase the efficiency of this system.
  W.A. Wan Noorina , Loh Wayen , Teh Lay Ann , S. Kanagasingam , S. Abdullah and M.M. Rahman
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigant flow pattern of a hypodermic needle; in Micro-Computed Tomography (MCT) scanned root canals prepared using Reciproc® files at two different levels using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Two lower incisors prepared with Reciproc® rotary files sized R 25 and 50, underwent MCT scanning to create 3-dimensional root canal models. A computational model of a 30 G hypodermic needle was then positioned at 3 and 5 mm from the apex in each root canal model. Irrigant flow pattern, velocity and mean apical pressure at 1 mm from the apices were evaluated using commercial CFD software, Star CCM+. The irrigant produced a high velocity jet, reaching 5.8 m sec–1, at the needle outlet and created multiple vortices near the canal wall before exiting at the canal orifice. Mean apical pressure and velocity recorded for R 25/3 mm (7.77 kPa/0.235 m sec–1), for R 25/5 mm (4.34 kPa/0.001 m sec–1), for R 50/3 mm (7.89 kPa/0.005 m sec–1) and R 50/5 mm (4.49 kPa/0.0001 m sec–1). Close proximity of the needle to the apex produced higher mean apical pressure; meanwhile, larger apical preparation sizes produced lower velocity of irrigant. It was observed that within the same canal, irrigant flow patterns were similar for both needle levels. Needle positions and apical preparation sizes were found affecting the apical pressure and velocity. The CFD simulations in MCT scanned root canals were clinically significant.
  S.A. Salleh , S. Hussin and M.M. Rahman
  The aim of the present study is rapid detection of tuberculosis from pleural effusion of suspected patients. Molecular technique Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used for the purpose. A total of 67 pleural fluid collected at Hospital University Kebangsaan Malaysia during May 2005 to October 2006 were sent to Microbiology Laboratory enrolled in the study. Detection rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural effusion was 0% by acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining and 1.5% by culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by PCR in 9% of the cases. PCR of pleural fluid had 19% sensitivity and 96% specificity, compared to AFB staining (0% sensitivity and 100% specificity) and culture (4% sensitivity and 100% specificity). PCR also has 67% Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and 72% Negative Predictive Value (NPV) in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Culture of pleural fluid has 100% PPV and 71% NPV while AFB staining has 0% PPV and 31% NPV. This preliminary study showed that PCR is a rapid method for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid but its sensitivity is not up the marked.
  Sohel Hasan , M.M. Rahman , T. Hossain , A. Mosaddik , S. Khatun and N. Absar
  Among the marine toxins related to human intoxication, tetrodotoxin has been known as one of the most prejudicial. Two tetrodotoxins, namely PFT-1 and PFT-2 were isolated and purified from liver of puffer fish by thin layer chromatography. The structure of both the toxins was elucidated by means of IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Sub acute toxicity study showed that both the toxins had pronounced effects on total RBC, WBC, platelet and ESR. Further serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP, bilirubin, creatinine and urea are also affected by the toxins. The histopathological examinations showed that all the tissues such as liver, lung, heart and kidney of rat were severely changed after treatment with the toxins. The toxicity of the purified compounds, PFT-1 and PFT-2 were also performed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
  M.R. Saha , M.M. Rahman , S.U. Ahmed , S. Rahman and H.K. Pal
  A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of stocking density on brood stock development of mud crab (Scylla serrate) in brackishwater earthen ponds. Four stocking densities such as 6000/ha (T1); 8000/ha (T2); 10000/ha (T3) and 12000/ha (T4) were tested and the crabs were allowed to fed with 50% slaughterhouse+25 percent tilapia (Oriochromis niloticus)+25% soft shrimp head. In terms of survival rate (both male and female) the stocking density having 6000/ha showed the best performance. For female crab significant lower survival (p<0.05) was observed for T3 and T4 compare to T1 and T2. But for final growth and carapace width, an insignificant variation was noted among the treatments. However, in case of T1 and T2, 2.5-3.0 percent of females were found to became berried showing significant variation with other two treatments proved that high stocking has inverse effect on brood development.
  M.M. Rahman , M.G. Rabbani , A.S.M.M.R. Khan , N. Ara and M.O. Rahman
  Physio-morphological characteristics of 30 local accessions of pummelo were studied at the existing plantation of the Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Ishurdi, Pabna during the period from October 2000 to October 2001. Among the 30 local pummelo accessions, accession number 6, 8, 10, 15, 17 and 22 were found better in respect of fruit characteristics compared to the rest of the accessions. The plants of accession number 8 bore the maximum number of fruits (52.66) and plants of accession number 5 bore the minimum number of fruits (13.00). The fruit of accession number 27 was the heaviest (2160 g) whereas accession number 7 produced the smallest fruits (718.33 g). Fruits of accession number 6 contained the highest TSS (9.66%). The edible qualities of accession number 6, 8, 15, 17, 21 and 22 were found better compared to others. All most all the characteristics viz. fruits plant‾1, fruit weight, fruit diameter. rind thickness, number of segments fruit‾1. TSS percentage with eating quality of fruit were preferable in accession number 22.
  M.M. Rahman , M.J. Islam and S.M. Rafiquzzaman
  Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) is one of the most successful one of all exotic fish species in Bangladesh from the view of acceptance and prevalence in cultured water bodies. Manual separation of male and female tilapia is one of the methods for obtaining single sex. In Bangladesh, abundance of sex reversed GIFT male is very limited, therefore, the experiment was conducted to compare the yield of manually separated GIFT with others. Highest yield (5285.3±289.9 kg ha-1) and gross return (358343.7±23555.6 tk ha-1) were found from manually separated male GIFT, which was significantly different from others. Even manually separated female GIFT gave the better production than culture of both sexes together and of carps also.
  M.A. Latif , M.A. Razzaque and M.M. Rahman
  The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of selected insecticides used for controlling brinjal shoot and fruit borer on soil microorganisms and to find out the insecticides or nontoxic to soil microorganism the impact of nine selected insecticides on soil microbial respiration was studied in the laboratory. After injection of different insecticides solutions, the soil was incubated in the laboratory at room temperature for 32 days. The amount of CO2 evolved due to soil microbial respiration was determined at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 days of incubation. Flubendiamide, nimbicidine, lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin and thiodicarb had stimulatory effect on microbial respiration during the initial period of incubation. Chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan had inhibitory effect on microbial respiration and cypermethrin had no remarkable effect during the early stage of incubation. The negative effect of chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan was temporary, which was disappeared after 4 days of insecticides application. No effect of the selected insecticides on soil microorganisms was observed after 24 or 32 days of incubation.
  N. Suhaila , S. Hussin and M.M. Rahman
  A total number of 157 samples were examined by 4 different tests-In-house rapid urease (iRUT), Culture, Histopathology and Immunochromatography (Immuno CardSTAT) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori from the patients reported to Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2007 to 2008. Out of the samples examined 47 (29.9%) were positive for H. pylori by the tests used in the laboratory. Efficacy of detection of the bacteria by the tests- In-house rapid urease, Culture, Histopathology and Immuno CardSTAT were 31.8, 13.9, 30.3 and 32.8%, respectively. However, sensitivity and specificity of the iRUT were 91.5 and 93.6%, respectively and the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was 86% and the Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 96.3%. The sensitivity for Immuno CardSTAT rapid test was 100% and the specificity was 79.3%. The PPV was 50% and the NPV was 100%. Convenient methods to the authors were ‘In house rapid urease test and Immunochromatography though variability of specificities were observed.
  R.Bt. Hashim , S. Husin and M.M. Rahman
  The present study was aimed to identify the gene of drug resistance betaclamase producing bacteria and clinical features of the infected patients at Hospital University Kebangsaan Malaysia. Blood samples from the patients were collected, processed and betalactamase producing drug resistance bacteria were identified by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Genes of the drug resistance bacteria were detected and characterized by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 34 isolates of drug resistance Betalactamase producing E.coli and Klebsiella spp. were isolated from 2,502 patients. Most common drug resistance gene TEM was found in 50% of the isolates. 11% was found positive for both TEM and SHV. Next 11% of the isolates expressed only SHV genes. Clinical features of the patients were recorded from where the bacteria isolated. Regarding community affiliations 70.5% of the infected patients were Malay 17.6% were Indian and 11.7% were Chinese. Majority of the patients has an underlying pre-morbid condition as reflected by their diagnosis. Better infection control and hygiene in hospitals, plus controlled and prudent use of antibiotics, is required to minimize the impact of drug resistance betalactamase producing bacteria and the spread of infections.
  M. Islam , S. Hussin and M.M. Rahman
  Respiratory system is the primary settlement place of opportunistic organisms and considered as chief carrier of common respiratory pathogens. The aim of the study was to know the opportunistic organisms present in the healthy subjects as well as subjects that were suffering from respiratory symptoms. The organisms were identified as per standard bacteriological protocol and pathogenicity tests of the identified organisms were performed in mouse model. Antibiotic sensitivity of the identified organisms was performed. The bacterial flora present in the throat swab of apparently healthy as well as subjects suffering from respiratory symptoms were: Staphylococcus spp. (39.44%) of which Coagulase positive Staphylococcus (21.13%) and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (18.31%), Klebsiella spp. (19.72%), Pseudomonas spp. (15.49%), Proteus spp. (4.23%), E. coli (9.86%) and Bacillus spp. (11.27%). Among the isolates Staphylococcus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas were the predominant species. Percentages of identified bacteria were higher in respiratory symptoms exhibiting individuals (53.52%) than apparently healthy individuals (46.48%). All coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from respiratory symptoms’ subjects were found to be pathogenic. The isolated bacteria were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Isolated Pseudomonas spp. showed multidrugs resistant properties. The study provided information about the pathogenic organisms’ present respiratory systems of apparently healthy as well as subjects suffering from respiratory symptoms. The pathogenic natures of the isolated organisms were determined to make aware of scientists as well as clinicians. Antibiotics sensitivity assays would provide information to the clinicians for the selection of appropriate antibiotics to treat their patients.
  M.M. Rahman , M. Zamri and N. Fadilla
  This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180°C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish.
  M.M. Rahman , M. Nasrun , M.Y. Hossain and M. Aa`zamuddin
  The study compares the bacteriological quality on Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) between ice and salt storage methods. The main objectives of the study were to identify different bacteria constituents and quantitative bacterial load in Asian seabass when preserved with ice and sea salt. For the purpose of this study, Asian seabass was stored in two different conditions of ice-chilled and salted for 2 days. All fish samples were analyzed by performing bacteriological analysis and the isolated bacteria were identified by using API® identification system. In case of the quantity of bacteria in the flesh, Chilling and salting had no significant difference to the quantity of bacteria on fish flesh. As for the skin, salt-preserved fish showed higher quantity of bacteria than ice-preserved fish. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas fluorescens had been identified from skin sample of ice-chilled fish. Besides P. fluorescens and A. baumannii other isolates identified include Vibrio and Myxobacteria. All bacteria were cocci-shaped except a few bacilli. In term of bacteria number and morphological characteristics, ice-chilled preserved fish was better than salt preserved fish. Overall, less number of bacteria was observed in both ice-chilled and sea salt preserved fish. The result of this study indicated that the quick preservation is a very important factor to control bacterial load in the preserved fish.
  K.U. Ahmed , M.M. Rahman , M.Z. Alam , M.M. Hossain and M.G. Miah
  The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall.
  M.M. Rahman , M. Tateyama , M. Niimi , R.B. Abdullah , W.E. Wan Khadijah and O. Kawamura
  Oxalate concentration in forage plants is important, because it results mineral deficiency in ruminants. Data on oxalate concentration in forage plants in conjunction with cutting and uncutting conditions throughout the growing period are limited. This study was aimed to investigate the changes in oxalate and some mineral concentrations of setaria (Setaria sphacelata). The plants were harvested at different stages (vegetative, boot, pre-flowering, flowering and seed) of maturity and at about 50 cm in length of regrowth (second to sixth cuttings) for evaluation of soluble oxalate, insoluble oxalate and some mineral concentrations. Soluble oxalate and total oxalate concentrations, as well as mineral concentrations, decreased with advancing maturity. Both oxalate concentrations (soluble or insoluble) were higher in leaf compared to stem. Soluble oxalate and total oxalate concentrations of regrowth were the highest at third cutting and lowest at sixth cutting. Insoluble oxalate concentration of regrowth was almost similar in all cuttings, except for the sixth cutting. The highest concentrations of potassium, sodium and magnesium of regrowth were observed at third cutting, while the highest concentration of calcium was observed at sixth cutting. A relationship between oxalate and mineral concentrations was partially observed. Results suggest that cutting materials of setaria from June to October could achieve oxalate levels that are toxic to ruminants.
  Z. Hossain , M.M. Rahman and S. Afruj
  Four different doses such as 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg estradiol-17β/kg feed were administered for 40 days on African catfish bearing an average length 5.1 mm and weight 4.7 mg. Growth, survival and sex-ratios were evaluated. The mean length of fry after hormone feeding phase were found to be more or less similar in all the treatments. The mean weight of fry of the group fed on diet containing 100 mg estradiol-17β/kg feed was found to be significantly higher than those receiving 50, 200, 400 mg estradiol-17β/kg feed and control. The groups of fry treated with 400 mg estradiol-17β/kg feed and control group showed lower survival compared to those with other doses of hormone. No negative effect on growth and survival of estradiol-17β was however, observed in this study. The doses of 100 mg and 50 mg estradiol-17β/kg feed resulted in 87.76% and 80.85% female fish respectively which were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of the expected frequency of female fish in a normal population. The dose of 400 mg estradiol-17β/kg feed resulted in relatively lower frequency of female fish.
  M.M. Rahman , D.B. Biswas , M.M. Rahman , M.M. Islam and M.A. Islam
  Bacteriological examination of septic wounds in animals was conducted in the Veterinary Clinic, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during the period of January 2001 to July 2002. A total of 250 samples were collected for the identification of bacteria from the wound and 227 (90.8%) were found infected with bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism (33.92%) and then Escherichia coli (18.94%) and the lowest prevalence was the Streptococcus spp. (9.25%). In vitro drug sensitivity study revealed that Gentamycin, Cephalosporin, Neomycin and Streptomycin are potent antibiotic for the treatment of infected wound and Penicillin and Sulphamethaxazole are less sensitive to contaminated wound. For better conception and accurate treatment of complicated wounds, it is necessary to have cultural isolation of the microorganisms and antibiotic sensitivity of each isolate before the treatment.
  M.A. Baset , M.M. Rahman , M.L. Ali , A.S.M. Mahbub and M.N. Haque
  Three groups of steers mentioned as T1, T2 and T3 were maintained with untreated straw (control), urea molasses straw (UMS) and UMS + wheat bran respectively. The results revealed that feed intake were more in case of T2 and T3 than in T1. Average live weight gain/animal/day were 204.17, 400.0 and 418.75g in case of T1, T2 and T3 treatment groups respectively. Live weight changes in T2 and T3 treatment groups differed significantly from 2nd month to the end of experiment at 1% level. Maximum live weight gain was observed at T3 treatment group where extra wheat bran was added. Daily live weight gain and selling price were more in the steers of T3 group but net return was observed maximum in the steers of T2 group. It may be concluded that combination of UMS and wheat bran had an influencing effect on live weight gain.
  M. A. Mannan , A. Begum , M.M. Rahman and M.M. Hossain
  An experiment was carried out with 24 brinjal varieties at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jamalpur Bangladesh to find the suitable resistant brinjal variety against brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB), Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Both in number and weight the brinjal varieties Jumki-1 and Jumki-2 were highly resistant (HR), Islampuri-3, BL-34 and Muktakeshi were fairly resistant (FR), Singnath long and Singnath-4 were tolerant to brinjal shoot and fruit borer. The susceptible varieties were Islampuri-1 and Irribegoon-1. Singnath-3 and Muktakeshi gave the highest yield from three years study and the lowest yield was obtained from Jumki although it was resistant to BSFB.
  A. Ahad , Kh.N. Islam , M.M. Rahman , K.F. Parija and S. Begum
  Experimental production of viremia in guineapigs against foot and mouth disease virus was studied. Post infection viremia was observed in post inoculated guineapigs only. Viremia appeared within 3DPI and persisted up to 5 DPI in post inoculated guineapigs, but control animals did not show any signs of viremia. Viremial level was also measured in post-inoculated guineapigs. The mean virus titres at 3, 4 and 5 DPI were log10 2.16, 3.39 and 3.44 respectively. It is concluded that guineapigs might be an excellent mode for studying the viremia against foot and mouth disease virus.
  M.M. Rahman , K.M. Khalequzzaman , T.K. Day , M.A. Rahman and Md. Kalim Uddin
  The experiment was conducted during 1996-97 and 1997-98 crop season with a view to determine the effectiveness of two systemic fungicides as seed treatment against late blight of potato caused by Phytophthora infestans. Potato seeds were used as whole and cut tuber and fungicides were applied on seed as dipping and spray. There were 10 treatments, each having three replications. Among the treatments, T1 (Whole+Ridomil dip.) appeared the best, which+ exhibited delaying on disease appearance, reduced foliage blight and increased yield significantly over control.
 
 
 
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