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Articles by N.K. Kibitok
Total Records ( 3 ) for N.K. Kibitok
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H. Wang Rong , E.A. Mukisira and N.K. Kibitok
  This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of manure or fertilizer application on height of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). After field preparation, representative soil samples were taken for mineral profiling. Sixty plots of 2x2 sq. m size were then demarcated and further divided into 5 similar units comprising of 4 blocks of 3 plots each. The plots in each block were independently allotted to 3 treatments in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Treatments were T1-control (without fertilization), T2 and T3 received dry beef cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer, respectively. All the 4 blocks (weed free) in each of the five (randomly distributed) units were planted on the same day. Harvesting was done at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks in a sequential manner starting with unit 1 to 5. All the blocks in each unit were harvested on the same day (at 5 cm height). Results showed that manure or fertilizer application had significant (p<0.0001; r2 = 0.9769) effect on height of Sorghum almum. ANOVA revealed high effect of cutting interval (p<0.0001) and cutting-treatment interaction (p<0.001). At 6 weeks the mean height in T2 (p<0.01) and T3 (p<0.001) were 12.74 and 19.05% higher than in T1. At 14 weeks T2 (p<0.01) and T3 (p<0.01) recorded 12.1 and 12.5% higher height than T1. At the same age however T2 and T3 were not different (p>0.05). The observed increases in the grass height between 6 and 14 weeks represented growth rate of 3.2, 3.6 and 3.5 cm d 1 for the 3 treatments respectively. Results further showed that height growth rates in T1, T2 and T3 were higher between 6 and 10 weeks (3.83, 3.77 and 3.95 cm d 1) compared to that recorded between 10 and 14 weeks (2.58, 3.4 and 3.12 cm d 1). The results also showed that height was strongly correlated with concentration of essential nutrients in the plant tissue. Gauging from the results of this study, availability and the known long-term residual effect, this study concluded that though both manure and fertilizer had significant effect on height, manure would be the best cost effective option for enhancing Sorghum almum growth rate and therefore yield on smallholder farms in Kenya.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Hongrong Wang , E.A. Mukisira , F.B. Lukibisi , D.M. Kuria and N.K. Kibitok
  This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of manure and fertilizer application on yield of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). After field preparation, 60 plots of 22 m2 size were demarcated and further divided into 5 similar units comprising of 4 blocks of 3 plots each (N = 12). The plots in each block were independently allotted to 3 treatments in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Treatments were T1-control (with nether manure nor fertilizer), T2 and T3 received manure and inorganic fertilizer, respectively. All the 4 blocks (weed free) in each of the five (randomly distributed) units were planted on the same day and harvesting at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks in a sequential manner starting with unit 1-5. All the blocks in each unit were harvested on the same day (at 5 cm height) and the entire freshly harvested materials, per plot, were weighed. Representative grab samples were collected, chopped to pieces of 2 cm length, mixed and 2 composite samples (500 g each) were taken for Dry Matter (DM) determination and chemical analyses. DM, Ash and Crude Protein (CP) were determined according the standard procedures. Fresh Matter Yield (FMY), DM Yield (DMY), Organic Matter Yield (OMY) and Crude Protein Yield (CPY) per 4m2 were determined and translated to equivalent ha. Collected data was stored in MS-Excel and analyzed using SAS. Results showed that, at the age of 6 weeks, FMY and DMY (ton ha 1) in T3 (8.8 and 1.2, respectively) were 66.1 and 71.4% higher (p< 0.0001) than T1 (5.3 and 0.7). It was also observed that, T2 (6.9 and 0.9) and T1 were also different (p< 0.05) at this age. At the age of 14 weeks T1, T2 and T3 recorded 62.5, 77.2 and 85.6 ton FMY ha 1 and 13.5, 17.1 and 19.9 ton DMY ha 1, respectively. A similar trend was observed with OMY and CPY, with T2 and T3 (13.9 and 16.1 ton DM ha 1, respectively) registering 27.5 and 47.7% higher OMY than T1. The results also showed strong correlation of yield parameters studied. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that, treatment had strong effect on yield. It was therefore concluded that manure or fertilizer application substantially increased the yield of Sorghum almum, with animal manure being the most ideal cost effective option for smallholder resource-poor farmers in Kenya.
  Lanyasunya , T.P. Wang , H. Rong , E.A. Mukisira , S.A. Abdulrazak and N.K. Kibitok
  An In vitro gas production study was conducted to determine the effect of age and soil treatments on fermentation characteristics of Sorghum almum, Commelina benghalensis and Vicia villosa Roth. The soil treatments were: T1-not fertilized and T2 received DAP fertilizer. Forage samples used were obtained from herbage materials harvested at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks of growth. Dry samples (65 C for 24 h, 200 mg DM) of the harvested materials, were incubated in glass syringes with rumen fluid obtained from 2 Friesian steers fitted with permanent fistula. The gas volumes were recorded at 0, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h and the data fitted to the model P = a + b (1e-ct) after correction with blanks using in vitro gas fit-curve program. Forage chemical analyses were done according to standard procedures. The resulting data was analyzed using SAS. Results showed that nutrient composition of this forage, varied with both age at harvest and treatment. The overall means of the fermentation fractions (b) and (a + b) in T2 were higher than in T1 (p< 0.01) across the 3 forages. Strong correlation was observed between chemical composition and gas production. Pattern of gas production was strongly influenced by both treatment and age at harvest. It was therefore, concluded that, age at harvest, negatively affected rumen fermentation of these forages. Application of fertilizer improved in vitro gas production, suggesting enhanced fermentation.
 
 
 
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