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Articles by Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
Total Records ( 13 ) for Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Shamsuddin Rosliza , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Kasim Susilawati , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Abstract: Problem Statement: The isolation (extraction, fractionation and purification) of humic acids (HA) from soils is laborious, time consuming and expensive. The extraction, fractionation and purification periods of these substances vary from 12 h-7 days. In order to facilitate production of HA at competitive cost, this study was conducted to investigate whether a simple and rapid procedure could be developed for isolation of HA from well decomposed tropical peat soils (Saprists). Approach: A 0.1 M KOH was used to isolate HA of air dry peat soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 h extraction periods after which samples (liquid obtained after centrifugation at 16,211 G for 15 min) were fractionated (using 6 M HCl) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 h. Samples were purified by washing them five times using distilled water instead of using HCl, HF, and an expensive process called dialysis that requires 1 to 7 days to purify HA. Each washing time was 10 min. Standard procedures were used to ascertain the purity (Ash, C, E4/E6, carboxylic, phenolic, total acidity, and K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and quantity of HA yield. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Although there was a linear relationship between extraction period and HA yield, there was no relationship between fractionation period and yield of HA. Distilled water used in this study was effective in purifying HA of the Saprists within 1 h without altering the true chemical nature of HA as it significantly reduced the mineral content of HA. Besides, C, E4/E6, carboxylic, phenolic, and total acidity of the isolated HA were typical of standard ones. Conclusion: The isolation of HA from peat soils can be reduced to 9 h (4 h extraction period, 4 h fractionation period and 1 h purification period) instead of the existing range of 1-7 days.
  Rajeswari A.P. Murugayah , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: This research was important because of still lack of information about rehabilitated tropical forest age effect on infiltration rate. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of age of forest on soil water infiltration rate and to evaluate the influence of forest age on the relationship between water infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil texture. Approach: This study was conducted under a rehabilitated forest at Bukit Nyabau (University Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, UPMKB) Forest. Soil organic matter, soil texture and infiltration rate were investigated in randomly selected blocks representing different age classes, namely two, four, six, eight and ten years. Results: The results indicated that 2, 4, 6 and 8 year old forest were not significantly different in organic matter content with the mean of 8.10+2.75, 9.32+3.50, 9.55+1.71 and 8.10+2.75% respectively. Besides, 10 year forest showed no significant differences compared with two and eight year forests. Soil texture for all the forests was sandy loam, except for the 4 year old forest which was a sandy clay loam. The lowest value of sand content was observed in four year forest. However, the clay content in this forest was statistically the highest compared with 2, 4, 8 and 10 year old forest. The infiltration rate of 6 years old forest was significantly greater in soil water infiltration rate with the mean of 5.0±0.02 mm m-1, compared with 2, 4, 8 and 10 years old forest with the means of 2.6±0.02, 4.2±0.03, 3.6±0.03 and 3.5±0.03 mm m-1 respectively. Eight and 10 year old forests showed no significant differences in terms of soil water infiltration rate and the lowest value of water infiltration rate was observed in the two year old forest. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the soil water infiltration rate in the forest is mainly influenced by soil texture and organic matter content, but not by forest age. However, the effect of soil texture was significant compared to organic matter which facilitates water movement into soil. Soil texture with higher percentage of sand and lower percentage of clay had higher infiltration rate.
  Claudia Hui Hui Chen , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
 

Problem statement:The isolation of Humic Acids (HA) from coal is laborious, costly and time consuming. The extraction and fractionation periods of HA vary from 4 h to 7 days. Fractionation period ranges from 12-24 h. However, most studies use 24 h as extraction period and also 24 h as fractionation period. This study was conducted to investigate whether the isolation period for HA of coals could be reduced.
Approach: Different extraction periods using 0.1 M NaOH (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h) were tested. Samples were centrifuged (16,211 G for 15 min) at the end of each extraction period. The dark-colored supernatant liquor containing HA was decanted and the pH of solution was adjusted to 1.0 using 6 M HCl. After acidification, the fractionation periods evaluated were 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h. The samples were transferred to a polyethylene bottle and centrifuged (16, 211 G for 10 min) after each fractionation period. The HA purification was done by suspending them in 50 mL distilled water and centrifuged (16,211 G for 10 min). HA samples were dried in an oven at 40°C to a constant weight. Standard procedures were used to characterized the HA (total carbon, E4/E6, phenolic OH, carboxylic COOH and total acidity).
Results: There was significant effect of both extraction and fractionation periods on the isolation of HA from coal. The optimum period for Na ions to saturate the exchange complex of HA during the extraction process was 8 h while the optimum period for the exchanges sites of the HA to be saturated with H ions during the fractionation process was 20 h. The distilled water used in this study was able to purify HA within 1 h because it served as Bronsted-Lowry acid. Additionally, carbon, E4/E6, phenolic OH, carboxylic COOH and total acidity of the HA were typical of those reported in the literature, suggesting that that the isolation process of the HA was successful.
Conclusion:
The isolation period of HA from coal can be reduced to 29 h (8 h extraction, 20 h fractionation period and 1 h purification period) instead of the existing range of 2-7 days.

  Ellyfa Kon , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Shaharudin Saamin and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  This study was conducted to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma ray on germination percentage, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight of seedlings derived from seeds of long bean (Vigna sesquipedalis). Seeds of this crop were treated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 Gy gamma rays at Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT). The treated seeds including control were sown in sand beds in size 4.6 x 0.7 m2 in a greenhouse at Horticulture Unit, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus (UPMKB). After germination, plants were transferred into polybags. Each polybag contained 1.2 kg blended growth medium with top soil, sand, and processed chicken dung ratio of 3:2:1. Standard procedures were used to observe and record the variables studied in this research. The experiment was designed as a 4 x 6 factorial Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. Lethal dose 50 % of population (LD50) was assayed. The study revealed that germination percentage, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight decreased with increasing dose of gamma ray. The 800 Gy gamma ray dose in particular had a pronounced effect on these morphological characteristics probably because of injury it might have caused to the seeds of the long bean. As a result, poor growth and development was noticed. The LD50 for survival and height ranged between 600-800 Gy and 400-500 Gy, respectively. Generally, higher gamma ray doses particularly 800 Gy significantly affected the morphological characteristics of long bean seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds.
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: It is important to compare the effect of extremely different rainfall conditions on soil carbon storage of lowland tropical peat swamp forest. Therefore, under these natural rainfall gradient, the objectives of this study were to determine whether rainfall affects soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest and to determine what correlations between variables occurs which stimulate soil carbon storage changes of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted in two different plots (0.3 ha each plot) to a depth of 15 cm under two extremely different mean rainfall at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. The calculation of carbon storage was by the bulk density method. Comparison between paired means of soil carbon storage under two different rainfall gradients were tested using paired t-test and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables (pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon). Results: The percentage of stable carbon count of unstable carbon was 42.93% under lower rainfall, while that of higher rainfall was 62.69 %. It suggests that this natural tropical peat swamp forest plays an important role as a sink rather than a source of carbon under higher rainfall but inversely under lower rainfall. It also suggests that soil organic matter tends to decompose and releases CO2 by oxidation under lower rainfall. Stable carbon positively correlated with humic acid yield for the two areas with different rainfall (p<0.01, r = 1.00). However, under higher rainfall, stable carbon also positively correlated with soil organic matter (p<0.05, r = 0.42) and total carbon (p<0.05, r = 0.42). It was found that stable carbon negatively correlated with soil acidity on both higher (p<0.05, r = -0.51) and lower rainfall areas (p<0.01, r = -0.54). However, that association appeared prominent under lower rainfall. Conclusion: Anaerobic environment is more prominent under higher rainfall and may facilitate high value of soil carbon storage in the soil profile of tropical peat swamp forest and allow this ecosystem to function as a carbon sink. During lower rainfall, water availability in tropical peat swamp forest may stimulate this ecosystem to maintain its soil acidity by releasing more CO2 in soil air and becomes a source rather than a sink of carbon.
  Shamsuddin Rosliza , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: Inefficient use of inorganic fertilizer such as urea is caused by substantial losses of ammonia when urea is surface-applied. Ammonia losses can be controlled by adding acidic material such as TSP, HA or FA. In order to reduce ammonia loss and retain soil exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate as well as producing complete organic based fertilizer, this study was conducted to compare the effects of urea-TSP-MOP, urea-TSP-MOP-HA, urea-TSP-MOP-FA, urea-TSP-MOP-acidified (HA + FA) mixtures on ammonia loss, soil pH, soil exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate accumulation compared to urea alone. Approach: The effects of urea amended with or without TSP, MOP, HA and FA were evaluated in a laboratory condition using a closed-dynamic air flow system. Ammonia loss, soil pH, soil exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate were determined using standard procedures. Results: Urea-TSP-MOP-HA, Urea-TSP-MOP, Urea-TSP-MOP-FA and Urea-TSP-MOP-Acidified (HA + FA) mixtures significantly reduces ammonia loss by 12.92, 20.12, 29.54 up to 100 % compared to urea alone. The same observation was made for soil exchangeable ammonium. From all the treatments, only Urea-TSP-MOP-FA and Urea-TSP-MOP-Acidified (HA + FA) significantly retained soil available nitrate accumulation and the findings were consistent with pH found in the study. It must be stressed that results obtained in the incubation experiment using an acidic (pHwater 6.32) soil of Typic Paleudults (Bekenu series) might only be applicable to similar acid soils. Conclusion: Urea, TSP and MOP amended with HA or HA and FA significantly reduced ammonia loss. The outcome of this study may contribute to the improvement of urea N, P and K use efficiency as well as reducing environmental pollution.
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: There is still lack of a study that compares the soil carbon storage of kuda-kuda skidding system and excavator skidding system in tropical peat swamp forests. The objective of this study was to determine whether skidding operations affects soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted on two different plots (0.3 ha each plot) to a depth of 15 cm under different skidding systems at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Plots were in the same forest concession area but considerably independent from each other. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. The calculation of carbon storage was by the bulk density method. Unpaired t-test was used to compare variables under the two systems and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables (pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon). Results: Soil organic matter, total carbon and unstable carbon were found to be negatively correlated with nitrogen but positively correlated with C/N ratio under kuda-kuda skidding system indicating that the lower nitrogen and higher C/N ratio markedly slowed decomposition process and enabled soil organic matter to accumulate as well as total carbon. Unstable carbon stocks under excavator skidding system was found to be higher (130.200 Mg ha-1) compared with kuda-kuda skidding system (117.124 Mg ha-1), under kuda-kuda skidding system, unstable carbon stock seemed to be preserved better and this was because of the better carbon storage. Although stable carbon contents of the two systems were similar, the excavator skidding system had faster decomposition processes, thus unstable carbon stocks decomposed more and this probably affects its function as carbon storage for further periods. Total phosphorus positively correlated with nitrogen but negatively correlated with C/N ratio under kuda-kuda skidding system, indicating that low nitrogen (0.914%) results in high C/N ratio (55.236) and this may have affected phosphorus (0.024%), thus enabled organic material to accumulate instead of losses through decomposition process. The low phosphorus (0.024%) or high C/P ratio (2346.345) under kuda-kuda skidding system resulted in decreased soil pH (3.552), thus enabled soil organic matter (97.603%) and total carbon (48.802%) to accumulate as well as unstable carbon stocks (117.124 Mg ha-1). Conclusion: The application of skidding systems in this peat swamp forest possibly alters their carbon storage particularly unstable carbon by altering their decomposition rates. Kuda-kuda skidding system is able to maintain decomposition process in this peat swamp forest. Hence, unstable carbon stocks can be preserved for further persistent breakdown processes, hence maintaining their function for carbon storage.
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: Since heavy machinery are used in the logging operation activity for extracting the logs on sensitive forest site with peat soil, environment destruction should be the other concern during its processes especially on its important function as soil carbon storage. The objective of this study was to determine whether logging operation affect soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted before and after logging operation in a 0.3 ha plot to a depth of 15 cm. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. Paired t-test was used to compare variables under the two treatments (before and after logging) and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables such as soil pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon. Results: The availability of unstable carbon and stable carbon controlled by soil acidity on undisturbed peat swamp forest as a result, the accumulation of unstable carbon as well as stable carbon occurred even if the soil pH declines and vice versa. However, stable carbon associated well with soil acidity. It was found that the C/P ratio positively correlated with humic acid and stable carbon of both before and after logging conditions. Nevertheless, that association was prominent on logged peat swamp forest. An indication that even though this peat swamp forest had been logged, humification was strongly maintained. However, the similarity of stable carbon of the logged peat swamp forest with stable carbon of undisturbed peat swamp forest indicate an ineffectiveness humification of logged peat swamp forest. Conclusion: Logging operation on sensitive forest with peat soil using heavy machinery increased the bulk density because of compaction. Soil acidity has important role in preserving soil carbon storage of this natural peat swamp forest, especially stable carbon. After the peat swamp forest is logged, humification processes are strongly maintained but slows and becomes ineffective, hence unstable carbon decomposes more instead of it being preserved as stable carbon. Disturbance by logging operation does not alter their amount of soil carbon storage (stable carbon) due to the carbon in humic acid is quite stable within one year.
  Muhamad Ismawi Salimin , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: Peat swamp is an important component of the world’s wetlands. Once they are disturbed the tendency for the soil degradation is very high. This study compared selected chemical properties of a peat swamp soil before and after timber harvesting. Approach: Peat soil samples were taken at 0-15 cm depth in 6 plots with 0.1 ha each plot at Batang Igan forest at Sibu Sarawak, Malaysia. The soil samples were analyzed for selected soil chemical properties. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.2. Results: The tropical peat swamp forest indicate its specific natural state such as rich in soil pH KCl and except for C/N ratio, the selected chemical properties such as soil pH water, cation exchange capacity, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were significantly different between before and after timber harvesting. Conclusion: Timber harvesting has significant effect on chemical properties of peat swamp.
  Mohd Suffian Firdaus , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: The conversion of forest land into oil palm plantation is considered to be one of the causes of soil degradation and loss of tropical land forest in Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to compare selected peat soil physical properties of secondary tropical peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation to determine the effect of forest conversion. Approach: Peat soil samples were collected from secondary tropical peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation at Batang Igan, Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Experimental plots of 300 m3 were set up in both sites and thirty peat soil samples were collected randomly in both sites at 0-15 cm depth using a peat auger. Undisturbed cores and bulk samples were collected for analysis of bulk density and moisture content. Fiber content of the total mass of organic materials was determined by wet sieving method. Soil bulk density, moisture content, organic matter, mineral content, soil porosity and particle density were determined by standard procedures. Hydraulic conductivity was measured in the field using Model 2800K1 Guelph Permeameter and soil strength was determined using Hand Operated Cone Penetrometer Eijkelkemp. Unpaired T-test was used to compare the variables of the two sites. Results: Both sites had similar degree of decomposition classified as hemic peat. No significant differences in fiber content, moisture content and particle density. Bulk density, mineral content and soil strength were significantly higher in the oil palm plantation while organic matter content, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity were significantly higher in the secondary tropical peat swamp forest. Conclusion: Conversion of secondary tropical peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation has significantly increased soil bulk density, mineral content and soil strength but significantly decreased organic matter content, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, degree of decomposition, fiber content, moisture content and particle density were not affected by the conversion.
  Empi Rambok , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: Despite few studies of forest health and environmental conditions of mangrove forest in Sarawak, the data was not sufficient to facilitate baseline data and direct comparison of mangrove forest health obtained for different location of mangrove forest in Sarawak. On this regard, determination of contemporary mangrove soil condition was essential to addressing mangrove forest for forest health, carbon storage and environmental balance. The study attempts to obtained preliminary database of mangrove forest soil chemical properties and to compare the forest health from two different mangrove forest locations. Approach: Mangrove soil samples were taken from Miri and Limbang Division of Sarawak at 0-30 cm depth. Selected soil chemical properties were determined and data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Version 9.2. Results: The soil acidity, total N, total P, CEC and humic acid of both locations were significantly different while in terms of total carbon and organic matter were similar. Conclusion: Regional diversity has significant effects the soil acidity, total N, total P, CEC and yield of the study areas. Data obtained can be useful for further study of carbon stock and nutrient content.
  Hasbullah Nur Aainaa , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Susilawati Kasim and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  In acid soils of the humid tropics, Phosphorus (P) deficiency due to its fixation by Al and Fe is common. It is therefore important to ensure adequate supply of P for optimum crop production. The use of zeolite on acid soils could fix Al and Fe and thus, rendering P readily available for crop use. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of including clinoptilolite zeolite in Zea mays cultivation on an acid soil on selected soil chemical properties, dry matter production, nutrient uptake and use efficiency of Zea mays. Triple Super Phosphate (TSP), urea and Muriate of Potash (MOP) were used in this study. Twenty five percent of the recommended N, P and K fertilizers for Zea mays were replaced with Clinoptilolite zeolite. Standard procedures were used to determine soil pH, exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, available phosphorus, exchangeable aluminium, iron, cations and organic matter before and after planting. The plants were harvested at tasselling stage and measured for dry matter production, nutrients uptake and use efficiency. The effect of zeolite application with 75% of fertilization (T2) and 100% fertilization (T1) on soil chemical properties were statistically similar. Similar observation was made on dry matter production, nutrients concentration, nutrients uptake and nutrients use efficiency. The findings reported in this paper indicate that Clinoptilolite zeolite could be used to reduce the use of N, P and K fertilizers use of Zea mays on acid soils. At least three cropping cycles are recommended to confirm the findings of this study. It is also essential to estimate the economic benefits of including zeolite in Zea mays cultivation. These aspects are being investigated in on-going field trial.
  Hasbullah Nur Aainaa , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Susilawati Kasim and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  This study was conducted to (i) Determine dry matter production, nutrients concentration, nutrients uptake and use efficiency of Zea mays by including clinoptilolite zeolite in the fertilization program of Zea mays planted on an acid soil and (ii) Determine the effect of including Clinoptilolite zeolite in the fertilization program of Zea mays on selected chemical properties of an acid soil. The effect of Clinoptilolite zeolite application with 75% of fertilizers (C2) and 100% fertilizers (C1) on soil chemical properties were statistically similar. Similar observation was made for dry matter production, nutrients concentration, nutrients uptake and nutrients use efficiency. These suggest that substituting 25% of N, P and K fertilizers with Clinoptilolite zeolite is more beneficial compared to 100% application of these fertilizers. Clinoptilolite zeolite strong affinity for monovalent cations ensured timely availability of P by exerting more soil exchange sites to occupy Al3+ and Fe2+.
 
 
 
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