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Articles by S. Subramanian
Total Records ( 8 ) for S. Subramanian
  V. Muneeswaran and S. Subramanian
  With the rapid advances in communication technology, most of the trusted data exchange happens electronically through various mediums such as Short Messaging Service (SMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) and electronic mail (e-mail) in the form of text, image, audio and video. For secure data exchange steganography can be employed rather than cryptography. Steganography is an ancient art of hiding confidential information in unsuspected objects like text, image, audio, video and Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). It must not be confused with cryptography where it transforms the confidential data into unintelligible one. It does not give a meaning to a person who intercepts it. Digital technology gives us new ways to apply steganographic techniques including one of the most interesting practices of hiding information in digital images. An image can have more information than what researchers see with the Human Visual System (HVS) hence they can convey more than a 1000 words. The steganography technique that is provides a better protection to a data in transmission while compared to other techniques. It provides a high information hiding capacity and successfully controls the distortion of the stego image. This study presents a new way of providing confidential information in a secure manner.
  S. Subramanian
  Legal context

This article examines whether the Court of First Instance ruling in Microsoft v Commission is a setback to IP rights protection in Europe. It analyses the Microsoft ruling against case law involving the interaction between IP rights and competition law.

Key points

The article highlights the difficulty in identifying the degree of interoperability as required under the EU Software Directive that will be necessary for competitors to compete effectively with Microsoft. Though the Software Directive does not envision the use of interoperability information for any other purpose other than interoperability, the CFI ruling hinges on the assumption that compulsorily granting the information to competitors will result in technical development of competitor's products. In addition, the article highlights the imperfections in the Microsoft ruling and its related consequences.

Practical significance

The article finds that the parameters of abuse under Article 82 of the Treaty have been stretched to capture Microsoft's conduct. The CFI ruling upsets the balance between copyright and competition policy envisioned in the Software Directive. The article emphasizes the dangers to competition and innovation in the market by the grant of remedies that are too lenient, too severe, too late, not administrable, or otherwise poorly conceived or implemented. Finally, the article argues that the Microsoft ruling may be an indication that the lack of an IP institution equivalent to DG Competition in the EU has had the consequence of competition law being able to chip away the classical privileges of IP rights granted by national laws.

  S. Subramanian
  Legal context

This article examines the non-use and unreasonable use of technology patented under the US Bayh-Dole Act which allows the private sector to retain ownership to patent title generated using federal funds.

Key points

The article highlights the failure of the US to apply the protective measures granted under the Act to shield the public from "extraordinary" price increase in innovative prescription drugs which had benefited from significant federal funding.

Practical significance

The article suggests alternative methods that may be used in order to ensure that the public acquires affordable medication in cases where the drugs were developed using federal funds

  R.T. Narendhirakannan , S. Subramanian and M. Kandaswamy
  The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Cleome gynandra leaf extract on both acute (carrageenan induced paw edema) and chronic (cotton pellet granuloma) experimental inflammatory models induced in rats. The effect of C. gynandra on adjuvant induced arthritis was also evaluated. The extract at a dose of 150 mg kg-1 body weight was found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in all the experimental models and the results were comparable with indomethacin, a standard reference drug. The extract significantly decreased the carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma. The increased activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum level albumin in cotton pellet granulomatous rats were reverted back to near normal levels after treatment with the extract. The extract significantly decreased the lipid peroxide (LPO) content of exudates, liver and spleen and the activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in the exudates of cotton pellet granuloma. Moreover, C. gynandra also significantly suppressed the development of chronic arthritis induced by Freund`s complete adjuvant. These results demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Cleome gynandra possess anti-inflammatory activity on both acute and chronic inflammation.
  S. Subramanian , D. Sathish Kumar , P. Arulselvan , G.P. Senthilkumar and U.S. Mahadeva Rao
  In the present study, anti-ulcerogenic potential of Aloe vera leaf gel was evaluated using two different models of gastric lesions induced in experimental rats; 1) Indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and 2) Ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Pretreatment with oral administration of the extract of Aloe vera gel (150 mg kg-1) prevented the formation of acute gastric lesions induced by both the experimental models. Further, treatment with the ethanolic extract of Aloe vera leaf gel for a period of 15 days significantly reduced the ulcer index, ulcerated surface and significantly elevated the levels of glycoprotein contents in gastric juice. The histological observations made on the stomach tissue provided further evidence on the anti-ulcerogenic potential of the Aloe vera leaf gel extract.
  S. Subramanian , D. Sathish Kumar , P. Arulselvan and G.P. Senthilkumar
  Aloe vera leaf gel is widely used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of different infectious diseases. In vitro antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera leaf gel were investigated against various common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The well and disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of inhibition against all the pathogens studied and the results are comparable to the conventional antibiotics. These results support the ethanomedicinal use of Aloe vera for the treatment of various ailments.
  D. Shanthakumari and S. Subramanian
  The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the toxic effects of fluoride on bone tissues by assessing the serum and bone biochemical parameters in the experimental rats orally treated with 25 mg L-1 fluoride/rat/day for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. The electron microscopic studies of bone in fluoride intoxicated rats shows flattened bone cells with damaged nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and enlarged lacunae. An increase in serum fluoride, alkaline and acid phosphatase, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, urea, creatinine, uric acid, blood glucose levels and decrease in the levels of protein and calcium were observed in experimental groups of rats. The levels of fluoride, tartrate resistance acid phosphatase and hyaluronic acid were increased and the levels of alkaline phosphatase, collagen, chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate were decreased in the bone tissue of experimental groups of rats. The altered serum and bone biochemical parameters may be attributed to bone damage which in turn may leads to skeletal fluorosis.
  D. Shanthakumari , S. Srinivasalu and S. Subramanian
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