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Articles by Seca Gandaseca
Total Records ( 11 ) for Seca Gandaseca
  Seca Gandaseca , John Sabang , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: Peat covers 1.6 million ha (13%) of the 12.4 million ha land area of Sarawak and some of peat swamp forests have been logged. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of logging operation on peat swamp forest in this area.
Approach:
The study used a remote sensing technique to assess vegetation cover in a peat swamp forest areas in Sarawak as result of logging practice and land clearing activities for oil palm plantation. Vegetation Index was used to assess impact of timber harvesting system and land clearing activities on remaining peat swamp forest in two sites which were logged previously and the possible relationship of change in hydrology.
Results:
The timber harvesting system was a combination of rail system for log transportation and excavator crawler for log skidding. Drainage work was probably carried out prior to logging activities which was followed up by land preparation for the establishment of the oil palm plantations. There was a general decrease in the level of greenness from 2002-2007. Between the two sites, the level of greenness was relatively lower in the West Site. The high green level of both sites was reduced remarkably in 2007 especially for the West Site and this corresponded to increase in the percentage of medium green level. The changed in the level of greenness in the remnant peat swamp forest could suggest that soil and other conditions such as vegetation structure and floristic composition are unfavorable for the expected rate of forest regeneration.
Conclusion:
The remnant logged peat swamp forest of the area declined due to a poor state of growth as shown by the dramatically decrease in the level of greenness. The peat swamp forest types strongly related to the hydrological conditions and the associated flow of nutrients and mineral elements. The surrounding hydrology was presumed to have influence the physical and chemical characteristics of the peat.
  Roland Kueh Jui Heng , Nik Muhamad Abd. Majid , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Silvester Jemat and Melvin Ku Kin Kin
  Problem statement: Forest structure assessment provides information on forest succession, dynamics, biodiversity and health which are important but only few information is available on rehabilitated forest. The objective of this study was to assess the forest structure of selected age stands at a rehabilitated forest situated in Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia. Approach: Four 20x20 m plots were established in stands planted in 1991, 1999, 2008 and an adjacent natural regenerating secondary forest (±22years) and all stands were measured for Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and height and identified. Results: Forest structural analysis showed better performance in the structural characteristics mainly the mean basal area (61%), mean Dbh (56%) and mean height (60%) of the trees as compared to the adjacent natural regenerating secondary forest. Conclusion: It can be concluded that after 18 years, rehabilitated forest using accelerating natural regeneration technique showed better structural dimension. This can help to promote the reforestation and restoration activities on degraded forest. Overall, rehabilitated forest areas have yet recovered in terms of size and height.
  Rajeswari A.P. Murugayah , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: This research was important because of still lack of information about rehabilitated tropical forest age effect on infiltration rate. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of age of forest on soil water infiltration rate and to evaluate the influence of forest age on the relationship between water infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil texture. Approach: This study was conducted under a rehabilitated forest at Bukit Nyabau (University Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, UPMKB) Forest. Soil organic matter, soil texture and infiltration rate were investigated in randomly selected blocks representing different age classes, namely two, four, six, eight and ten years. Results: The results indicated that 2, 4, 6 and 8 year old forest were not significantly different in organic matter content with the mean of 8.10+2.75, 9.32+3.50, 9.55+1.71 and 8.10+2.75% respectively. Besides, 10 year forest showed no significant differences compared with two and eight year forests. Soil texture for all the forests was sandy loam, except for the 4 year old forest which was a sandy clay loam. The lowest value of sand content was observed in four year forest. However, the clay content in this forest was statistically the highest compared with 2, 4, 8 and 10 year old forest. The infiltration rate of 6 years old forest was significantly greater in soil water infiltration rate with the mean of 5.0±0.02 mm m-1, compared with 2, 4, 8 and 10 years old forest with the means of 2.6±0.02, 4.2±0.03, 3.6±0.03 and 3.5±0.03 mm m-1 respectively. Eight and 10 year old forests showed no significant differences in terms of soil water infiltration rate and the lowest value of water infiltration rate was observed in the two year old forest. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the soil water infiltration rate in the forest is mainly influenced by soil texture and organic matter content, but not by forest age. However, the effect of soil texture was significant compared to organic matter which facilitates water movement into soil. Soil texture with higher percentage of sand and lower percentage of clay had higher infiltration rate.
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: It is important to compare the effect of extremely different rainfall conditions on soil carbon storage of lowland tropical peat swamp forest. Therefore, under these natural rainfall gradient, the objectives of this study were to determine whether rainfall affects soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest and to determine what correlations between variables occurs which stimulate soil carbon storage changes of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted in two different plots (0.3 ha each plot) to a depth of 15 cm under two extremely different mean rainfall at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. The calculation of carbon storage was by the bulk density method. Comparison between paired means of soil carbon storage under two different rainfall gradients were tested using paired t-test and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables (pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon). Results: The percentage of stable carbon count of unstable carbon was 42.93% under lower rainfall, while that of higher rainfall was 62.69 %. It suggests that this natural tropical peat swamp forest plays an important role as a sink rather than a source of carbon under higher rainfall but inversely under lower rainfall. It also suggests that soil organic matter tends to decompose and releases CO2 by oxidation under lower rainfall. Stable carbon positively correlated with humic acid yield for the two areas with different rainfall (p<0.01, r = 1.00). However, under higher rainfall, stable carbon also positively correlated with soil organic matter (p<0.05, r = 0.42) and total carbon (p<0.05, r = 0.42). It was found that stable carbon negatively correlated with soil acidity on both higher (p<0.05, r = -0.51) and lower rainfall areas (p<0.01, r = -0.54). However, that association appeared prominent under lower rainfall. Conclusion: Anaerobic environment is more prominent under higher rainfall and may facilitate high value of soil carbon storage in the soil profile of tropical peat swamp forest and allow this ecosystem to function as a carbon sink. During lower rainfall, water availability in tropical peat swamp forest may stimulate this ecosystem to maintain its soil acidity by releasing more CO2 in soil air and becomes a source rather than a sink of carbon.
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: It is important to investigate the seriousness of degradation of peat swamp forest caused by skidding system in terms of its function as a carbon sink. In this study, we formulated assumptions that conditions of our research site before the introduction of skidding system were in their natural states, thus that changes measured are clearly caused by skidding system. The objective of this study was to determine soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest in their natural state. Approach: Peat soil samples and bulk density were taken at 0-15 cm in a 0.3 ha plot at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon and total nitrogen. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values obtained by calculation. The calculation of carbon storage was by the bulk density method. Correlation analysis was used where applicable using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.1. Results: The results indicated that this tropical peat swamp forest rich in soil organic matter (97.645 %) but had extreme acidic environment (pH 3.737), thereby inhibiting organic matter decomposition rates. This tropical peat swamp forest also had large amounts of total carbon (48.823 %), low mineral nitrogen (0.896 %) and high C/N ratio (58.427). Stable carbon (soil carbon storage) positively correlated with unstable carbon (p<0.01, r = 0.43). The value of soil carbon storage was found to be 67.550 Mg Ha-1 (±61.49 % of unstable carbon). Furthermore, soil carbon storage positively correlated with soil organic matter (p<0.01, r = 0.43), total carbon (p<0.01, r = 0.43) and humic acid yield (p<0.01, r = 1.00). However, soil carbon storage negatively correlated with soil acidity (p<0.01, r = -0.55). Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the tropical peat swamp forest indicates its specific natural state. This natural tropical peat swamp forest plays an important role as a sink rather than a source of carbon. The soil carbon storage in this natural tropical peat swamp forest was derived from unstable carbon and sensitive to soil acidity.
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: There is still lack of a study that compares the soil carbon storage of kuda-kuda skidding system and excavator skidding system in tropical peat swamp forests. The objective of this study was to determine whether skidding operations affects soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted on two different plots (0.3 ha each plot) to a depth of 15 cm under different skidding systems at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Plots were in the same forest concession area but considerably independent from each other. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. The calculation of carbon storage was by the bulk density method. Unpaired t-test was used to compare variables under the two systems and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables (pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon). Results: Soil organic matter, total carbon and unstable carbon were found to be negatively correlated with nitrogen but positively correlated with C/N ratio under kuda-kuda skidding system indicating that the lower nitrogen and higher C/N ratio markedly slowed decomposition process and enabled soil organic matter to accumulate as well as total carbon. Unstable carbon stocks under excavator skidding system was found to be higher (130.200 Mg ha-1) compared with kuda-kuda skidding system (117.124 Mg ha-1), under kuda-kuda skidding system, unstable carbon stock seemed to be preserved better and this was because of the better carbon storage. Although stable carbon contents of the two systems were similar, the excavator skidding system had faster decomposition processes, thus unstable carbon stocks decomposed more and this probably affects its function as carbon storage for further periods. Total phosphorus positively correlated with nitrogen but negatively correlated with C/N ratio under kuda-kuda skidding system, indicating that low nitrogen (0.914%) results in high C/N ratio (55.236) and this may have affected phosphorus (0.024%), thus enabled organic material to accumulate instead of losses through decomposition process. The low phosphorus (0.024%) or high C/P ratio (2346.345) under kuda-kuda skidding system resulted in decreased soil pH (3.552), thus enabled soil organic matter (97.603%) and total carbon (48.802%) to accumulate as well as unstable carbon stocks (117.124 Mg ha-1). Conclusion: The application of skidding systems in this peat swamp forest possibly alters their carbon storage particularly unstable carbon by altering their decomposition rates. Kuda-kuda skidding system is able to maintain decomposition process in this peat swamp forest. Hence, unstable carbon stocks can be preserved for further persistent breakdown processes, hence maintaining their function for carbon storage.
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: Since heavy machinery are used in the logging operation activity for extracting the logs on sensitive forest site with peat soil, environment destruction should be the other concern during its processes especially on its important function as soil carbon storage. The objective of this study was to determine whether logging operation affect soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted before and after logging operation in a 0.3 ha plot to a depth of 15 cm. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. Paired t-test was used to compare variables under the two treatments (before and after logging) and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables such as soil pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon. Results: The availability of unstable carbon and stable carbon controlled by soil acidity on undisturbed peat swamp forest as a result, the accumulation of unstable carbon as well as stable carbon occurred even if the soil pH declines and vice versa. However, stable carbon associated well with soil acidity. It was found that the C/P ratio positively correlated with humic acid and stable carbon of both before and after logging conditions. Nevertheless, that association was prominent on logged peat swamp forest. An indication that even though this peat swamp forest had been logged, humification was strongly maintained. However, the similarity of stable carbon of the logged peat swamp forest with stable carbon of undisturbed peat swamp forest indicate an ineffectiveness humification of logged peat swamp forest. Conclusion: Logging operation on sensitive forest with peat soil using heavy machinery increased the bulk density because of compaction. Soil acidity has important role in preserving soil carbon storage of this natural peat swamp forest, especially stable carbon. After the peat swamp forest is logged, humification processes are strongly maintained but slows and becomes ineffective, hence unstable carbon decomposes more instead of it being preserved as stable carbon. Disturbance by logging operation does not alter their amount of soil carbon storage (stable carbon) due to the carbon in humic acid is quite stable within one year.
  Muhamad Ismawi Salimin , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: Peat swamp is an important component of the world’s wetlands. Once they are disturbed the tendency for the soil degradation is very high. This study compared selected chemical properties of a peat swamp soil before and after timber harvesting. Approach: Peat soil samples were taken at 0-15 cm depth in 6 plots with 0.1 ha each plot at Batang Igan forest at Sibu Sarawak, Malaysia. The soil samples were analyzed for selected soil chemical properties. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.2. Results: The tropical peat swamp forest indicate its specific natural state such as rich in soil pH KCl and except for C/N ratio, the selected chemical properties such as soil pH water, cation exchange capacity, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were significantly different between before and after timber harvesting. Conclusion: Timber harvesting has significant effect on chemical properties of peat swamp.
  Mohd Suffian Firdaus , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: The conversion of forest land into oil palm plantation is considered to be one of the causes of soil degradation and loss of tropical land forest in Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to compare selected peat soil physical properties of secondary tropical peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation to determine the effect of forest conversion. Approach: Peat soil samples were collected from secondary tropical peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation at Batang Igan, Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Experimental plots of 300 m3 were set up in both sites and thirty peat soil samples were collected randomly in both sites at 0-15 cm depth using a peat auger. Undisturbed cores and bulk samples were collected for analysis of bulk density and moisture content. Fiber content of the total mass of organic materials was determined by wet sieving method. Soil bulk density, moisture content, organic matter, mineral content, soil porosity and particle density were determined by standard procedures. Hydraulic conductivity was measured in the field using Model 2800K1 Guelph Permeameter and soil strength was determined using Hand Operated Cone Penetrometer Eijkelkemp. Unpaired T-test was used to compare the variables of the two sites. Results: Both sites had similar degree of decomposition classified as hemic peat. No significant differences in fiber content, moisture content and particle density. Bulk density, mineral content and soil strength were significantly higher in the oil palm plantation while organic matter content, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity were significantly higher in the secondary tropical peat swamp forest. Conclusion: Conversion of secondary tropical peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation has significantly increased soil bulk density, mineral content and soil strength but significantly decreased organic matter content, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, degree of decomposition, fiber content, moisture content and particle density were not affected by the conversion.
  Noraini Rosli , Seca Gandaseca , Johan Ismail and Mohd Iqbal Jailan
  Problem statement: It is important to find the status of water quality at converted peat swamp forest into oil palm plantation. This study was conducted to find and determine the water quality at peat swamp forest of Batang Igan, Sibu Sarawak. This study presents a status on the water quality of peat swamp forest at the area. Approach: In-situ data and a total of 72 water samples were collected at four sampling stations (S1, S2, S3 and S4) in three different months of July, August and November 2009. In-situ data included temperature, conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH and Turbidity. Analysis for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) were conducted in the laboratory. Results for water quality parameters are as follows, temperature range (26.85-32.90 °C), pH range (3.03-3.84), DO range (1.99-8.05 mg/L), conductivity (42.07-98.72 μS cm-1), TSS range (1-54 mg L-1), turbidity (0.39-9.80 NTU), BOD range (0.5-9.8 mg L-1), COD (0-17) and ammoniacal nitrogen (0.2-0.42 mg L-1). The Water Quality Index (WQI) which was calculated based on six water quality parameters namely dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, ammoniacal nitrogen and total suspended solids, was representative of the state of water quality in Batang Igan peat swamp forest. Results: Based on WQI, S1 was categorized under Class III while S2, S3 and S4 were categorized under Class II. Conclusion: The physical-chemical parameters of water in Batang Igan peat swamp forest were in normal range or in class I and class II that is in good water status except for pH and dissolved oxygen for the water; however it is normal condition for peat water.
  Empi Rambok , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: Despite few studies of forest health and environmental conditions of mangrove forest in Sarawak, the data was not sufficient to facilitate baseline data and direct comparison of mangrove forest health obtained for different location of mangrove forest in Sarawak. On this regard, determination of contemporary mangrove soil condition was essential to addressing mangrove forest for forest health, carbon storage and environmental balance. The study attempts to obtained preliminary database of mangrove forest soil chemical properties and to compare the forest health from two different mangrove forest locations. Approach: Mangrove soil samples were taken from Miri and Limbang Division of Sarawak at 0-30 cm depth. Selected soil chemical properties were determined and data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Version 9.2. Results: The soil acidity, total N, total P, CEC and humic acid of both locations were significantly different while in terms of total carbon and organic matter were similar. Conclusion: Regional diversity has significant effects the soil acidity, total N, total P, CEC and yield of the study areas. Data obtained can be useful for further study of carbon stock and nutrient content.
 
 
 
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