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Articles by V.E. Emongor
Total Records ( 4 ) for V.E. Emongor
  V.E. Emongor
  Laboratory trials were carried out to investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on the postharvest quality and vase life of gerbera cut-flowers. Freshly cut flower stems of gerbera cultivar `Ida Red`, with two outer disc florets open were put in flower vases containing 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 mg L-1 of GA3. The treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with four replicates. Gerbera cut-flowers held in GA3 at 2.5, 5 or 7. 5 mg L-1 significantly delayed flower senescence by increasing the number of disc florets open, delayed petal fading and abscission. Gibberellic acid at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg L-1 significantly reduced dry matter content in the flower heads and stems of gerbera cut-flowers. Gerbera cut-flowers held in 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg L-1 GA3 had significantly higher water content in the flower heads and stems, hence maintaining flower turgidity, reduction in bent neck and flower senescence and increased flower quality after 14 days of holding compared to flowers held in distilled water. Gibberellic acid at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg L-1 has the potential to be used as a gerbera cut-flower preservative solution.
  V.E. Emongor , T. Mathowa and S. Kabelo
  Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of concentrated sulphuric acid (98%), concentrated nitric acid (65%), simmering hot water 98.5C, gibberellic acid (GA3) and ethephon on the germination capacity of one-and-two-year old Corchorus tridens seeds. The results showed that treating one-year-old Corchorus tridens seeds with concentrated sulphuric acid (98%) for 10, 20, and 30 min significantly broke the seed dormancy and promoted the germination of the seeds compared to control seeds (treated with distilled water), hot water treatment, nitric acid (65%) (seeds treated for 10, 20 and 30 min), gibberellic acid and ethephon. Treating Corchorus seeds with concentrated sulphuric acid for more than 10 min significantly decreased germination capacity. Concentrated nitric acid, gibberellic acid and ethephon had no effect on the germination capacity of corchorus seed. Simmering hot water also broke seed dormancy of Corchorus tridens seed but was not as effective as concentrated sulphuric acid. The results also showed that Corchorus tridens seed stored for two years lost their viability by up to 91.5%. It was concluded that Corchurus tridens seeds from Botswana have hard seed coat or impervious seed coat dormancy but not physiological dormancy as an adaptation to arid and desert conditions.
  V.E. Emongor , E.B. Khonga , G.M. Ramolemana , K. Marumo , S. Machacha and T. Motsamai
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of treated secondary sewage effluent for irrigation of horticultural crops in Botswana. Secondary effluent water was sampled every month for one year, from a breather pipe on the pivot irrigation system at the Botswana College of Agriculture, Notwane Farm, Gaborone, using USEPA procedures and guidelines. The results of the study showed that the secondary sewage effluent from the activated sewage treatment plant in Gaborone had the following physico-chemical properties: Electrical Conductivity (EC) of 0.51 dS m-1, pH 9.08, total dissolved solids of 358 mg L-1, total alkalinity of 234 mg L-1 as CaCO3, Cl-70 mg L-1, NaCl 115 mg L-1, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) of 2.26, NO3-5.56 mg L-1, NH4+ 0.3 mg L-1, NO2-0.0184 mg L-1, total Fe 0.623 mg L-1 and faecal coliforms of 5/100 mL. The current results suggest that the Gaborone secondary sewage effluent is suitable for unrestricted irrigation of horticultural crops based on the EC, SAR, Cl-, NaCl, faecal coliforms, available plant nutrients and the low concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Co, Cd, As and Se all present in parts per billion).
  V.E. Emongor
  The use of secondary effluent for irrigated agriculture offers an opportunity to conserve limited water resources and increase food production in Botswana. Effluent irrigation is a means of ecological waste water management and it`s a resource of economic development. The secondary effluent contains both macro-and micro-nutrients needed for crop growth and development. The secondary effluent contains phosphorus and nitrogen which are responsible for eutrophication of rivers and other water bodies where the effluent is discharged. The sludge that results from municipal waste water treatment processes contains organic matter and nutrients that, when properly treated, composted and applied to farmland, can improve the physical properties and agricultural productivity of soils and its agricultural use provides an alternative to disposal options, such as incineration, or landfilling. For the safety of food products and the sustainability of agricultural land, the use of waste water treatment technology that destroys all pathogens and toxic chemicals in raw municipal waste water and stringent waste water discharge requirements are important. The sewage sludge must be treated to levels that allow it to be reused. In order to minimize the potential health and environmental consequences in the use of secondary sewage effluent and sludge, the quality of the effluent for irrigation and treated composted sludge has to be monitored continuously to meet the specific set standards for the particular purpose. This study discusses the uses of secondary effluent, health-risks, reuse standards, irrigation suitability and management guidelines in the use of secondary effluent for irrigation.
 
 
 
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