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Articles by Abdul Ghafoor
Total Records ( 14 ) for Abdul Ghafoor
  Muhammad Bashir , Zahoor Ahmad and Abdul Ghafoor
  In order to identify sources of resistance in cowpea against blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BLCMV), two hundred cowpea germplasm accessions were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Ten to 15 plants of each accession were artificially inoculated by sap prepared from virus-infected plants. Disease severity on each line was recorded at 15 days interval. The symptomless plants were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to separate the resistant plants from susceptible ones. Only two accessions (27168 and 27192) out of 134 of local origin were found resistant to BlCMV, whereas 23 (34.8%) were resistant out of 66 exotic lines. Twenty genotypes expressed segregation pattern towards disease reaction and the others were susceptible. In this study some new sources of resistance have identified which can be used to breed to breed virus-resistant cowpea cultivars.
  Muhammad Abid , Anwar-ul-Hassan , Abdul Ghafoor and M.M. Iqbal
  Deterioration of soil health and reduction in plant growth are characteristics of long-term irrigation with brackish waters. In the present investigations, we evaluated the effects of such waters on the declining rate of wheat and paddy yields and properties of the Bhalike soil series for four and a half years. Five levels, each of EC, SAR and RSC at 0.65, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 7.35 dS m-1; 3.95, 9.65, 18.0, 26.35 and 32.04 (mmol L-1)1/2 and 0.65, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 7.35 mmolc L-1, respectively, were applied to 30 x 68 cm undisturbed and disturbed soil columns taken in metallic cylinders (30 x 76 cm). Results indicate that brackish water with an ECiw of ≤ 4.0 and 4.0 dS m-1; SARiw ≤ 9.65 and 18.0; RSC ≤ 4.0 and 4.0 mmolc L-1 may be used for irrigation of wheat without yield reduction up to coded “-1.682, -1 and 0” levels of SARiw and RSC; ECiw and RSC; ECiw and SARiw, respectively, for the undisturbed and disturbed soil columns. Paddy yield decreased linearly with ECiw at given levels of SARiw and RSC. The SARiw up to 26.35 at coded “-1.682 and –1” levels of ECiw and RSC did not affect the paddy yield in both the undisturbed and disturbed soils. At higher coded “0, 1 and 1.682” levels of ECiw and RSC, the SARiw became narrow, i.e. 9.65 for paddy yield. The RSC up to 2.0 and 4.0 mmolc L-1 were observed safe for paddy yield in the undisturbed and disturbed soils, respectively. The rate of yield reduction with similar ECiw, SARiw and/or RSC was high in the undisturbed than that in the disturbed soils. Higher grain and paddy yields were predicted in the disturbed than that in the undisturbed soil columns with the same levels of ECiw, SARiw and RSC. The soil EC and SAR tended to increase with ECiw, SARiw and/or RSC, with exception to ECe which decreased with RSC waters. However, the rate of increase in ECe and SAR was high with ECiw and SARiw particularly at higher levels of SARiw and RSC; ECiw and RSC. It was observed that whole of the undisturbed and disturbed soil profile attained ECe >4.0 dS m-1 and SAR values >13.3 which are the upper limits for saline-sodic soils. The bulk density (BD) decreased by 4.9 and 4.4 %, respectively, for the undisturbed and disturbed soils with ECiw, 7.35 dS m-1 over ECiw 0.64 dS m-1 at coded “0” levels of SARiw and/or RSC of waters. The BD was 18.1, 9.3 and 14.3; 9.5 %, respectively, with SARiw 32.04 and RSC 7.35 mmolc L-1 over SARiw 3.95 and RSC 0.64 mmolc L-1for the undisturbed and disturbed soils. The increase in Ks was 0.048, 0.118, 0.172 and 0.190; 0.043, 0.109, 0.170 and 0.197 cm h-1, respectively, with ECiw 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 7.35 dS m-1 over ECiw 0.64 for the undisturbed and disturbed soils. At given levels of ECiw and RSC; ECiw and SARiw, the SARiw and RSC reduced the Ks of the soils. For instance, reduction in Ks was 0.003, 0.036 and 0.069 cm h-1; 0.01, 0.042 and 0.071 cm h-1 with SARiw 18.0, 26.35 and 32.04, respectively, over SARiw 3.95 at coded “0” levels of ECiw and SARiw [4.0 dS m-1 and 18.0 (mmol L-1)1/2]. At coded “0” levels of ECiw and SARiw, the RSC waters up to 2.0 mmolc L-1 increased the Ks of both the soils.
  Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik , Muhammad Ashraf , Afsari Sharif Qureshi and Abdul Ghafoor
  Seventeen soybean varieties were evaluated for yield components at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during July to October 2002. Data were recorded for traits viz. leaf area, chlorophyll content, 1st pod height, days to 50% flowering, days to flowering completion, days to pod initiation, days to 50% maturity, plant height, number of pods per plant, number of branches per plant, number of unfilled pods, number of shattered pods, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil content, protein content. Data were analyzed for analysis of variance, heritability, correlation coefficient and path analysis. Results of analysis of variance revealed that there were highly significant differences among genotypes for all the characters. High heritability was recorded in 100 grain weight, days to maturity, days to flowering completion, days to pod initiation, leaf area, days to 50% flowering, oil contents, no. of shattered pods/plants and grain yield/plant, plant height and protein contents respectively indicating the additive type of gene action. On the basis of heritability selection for these traits will provide greatest improvement in soybean. Correlation coefficient of yield was significant and positive with leaf area, pods per plant and oil contents. Therefore, increase in these traits will ultimately increase the grain yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that days to pod initiation had maximum direct contribution to yield followed. Therefore, it is suggested that this characters can be considered as selection criteria in improving the bean yield of soybean genotypes
  Umair Ahmad , Abdul Ghafoor and M. Ather Mahmood
  The study was conducted to identify the felt needs of the farmers in the project area. Thirty respondents from each wheat and sugarcane growers were selected and the data were collected by personal interview method. According to the results water shortage was the most important problem both for wheat and sugarcane growers where as the results were mentioned both in tabular and diagrammatic form.
  M.Ather Mahmood , Abdul Ghafoor , Nadeem Akmal and Umair Ahmad
  The study was conducted to investigate the working of the Faisalabad fruit and vegetable market. The managerial, operational and planning aspects of market were thoroughly be thrashed and loopholes in this regard outlined. The market malpractices were common in the form of short weighment of produce, misquotation of prices, exploitation of farmers in debt and excessive charges on various services. Then there was hoarding, topping and under cover settlement of prices of produce transacted. It was estimated that the producer got up to 55% share in consumer rupee for fruits and vegetables. While studying different commodities the retailer share was found to be significantly higher as it ranged from 20-30% for the selected commodities. There was also a dispute among the commission agents on the allotment of shops that was obstruction the smooth functioning of the market.
  Nadeem Akmal , Abdul Ghafoor and M. Ather Mahmood
  To assess the credit requirements of small farm households, data collected from eight villages of the district Faisalabad were analyzed. The results of the study showed that per acre credit requirements at existing level of input use were Rs. 1412 and 3027 on the progressive and conventional farms. Per acre credit requirements of the progressive and conventional farmers at recommended level of input use were worked out to be Rs. 1473.07 and 4462.34 showing that the progressive farmers were using the inputs close to the recommended level.
  Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi , Abdul Ghafoor and Obaid Ullah Sayal
  Callogenesis and regenerative response of in-vivo leaf explant of tomato hybrids viz. `Bornia` and `Royesta` were studied at different Plant Growth Regulators (PGR)) levels. `Bornia` showed a high frequency of callogenesis than `Royesta` at various combinations of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) and Indol Acetic Acid (IAA). Maximum callogenesis (100%) was recorded on four different combinations of BAP and IAA. A media formulation with BAP @ 6.5 and IAA @ 11 μ M/l found to be optimum for both hybrids. `Royesta` regenerated higher percentage of shoots at BAP (6.5 μ M/l) alone and with IAA (6.0 μ M/l). Both hybrids regenerated roots at various concentrations of IAA alone.
  Mohammad Iqbal , Fazal Subhan , Abdul Ghafoor , Kashif Waseem and Mohammad Saleem Jilani
  The effect of different concentration of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) on root inintiation of apple cuttings. IBA was applied in five different concerntrations (1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 3000 ppm, 4000 ppm and 5000 ppm)to study number of days to bud sprouting, number of shoots per cuttings, shoot length, number of leaves per cuttings, number of roots per cutting, root length and survival percentage. Significant results were obtained from all the parameters except number of leaves per cutting. Minimum days (15.00) to bud sprouting were recorded in cuttings treated with 3000 ppm, while maximum days were taken by untreated cuttings. Maximum number of shoots (3.00) and maximum shoot length (8.00 cm) were obtained from 3000 ppm, while same were minimum in case of Ti (control). Maximum number of roots (7.00) and maximum root length (11.25 cm) were observed in cuttings treated with 3000 ppm, while minimum number of roots (4.00) and minimum root length (7.00 cm) were observed in control. Best plant survival (76.67 %) was given with 3000 ppm concerntration, while it was minimum (16.67 %) when the cuutings were not treated with IBA.
  Abdul Ghafoor , Zahoor Ahmad and Afsari Sharif
  Blackgram germplasm comprising of 484 genotypes was catagorized in 5 clusters based on average linkage. Ten per cent members from each cluster plotted for first 2 PCs revealed that clusters I, II, III and IV were grouped together, whereas cluster V was scattered in upper half of the graph. Two members of cluster V could be grouped together but third member was away which is a late maturing with lanceolate leaf shape. Correlation in total germplasm and selected accessions were similar in most cases. High correlation of grain yield with branches, pods/plant, pods/branch, seeds/pod, seed weight and biological yield for both the populations indicated the importance of these characters in determining yield potential for blackgram. In selected population, grain yield showed significantly positive correlation with days to flowering and maturity also, indicating the importance of selection pressure for these traits.
  Sagheer Ahmad , Abdul Ghafoor , M. Abbas Aziz and M. Ehsan Akhtar
  A calcareous saline-sodic soil (pHs = 8.26, ECe = 9.07 dS m–1, SAR = 37.90, CaCO3 = 8.58 %, texture = sandy clay loam) packed in concrete lysimeters was tested for Phytoremediation. The treatments were: No-Sesbania (T1), Sesbania-harvested (T2) and Sesbania-incorporated (T3) before flowering. Rice-wheat crop rotation was followed after Sesbania. Each crop was irrigated with high RSC water (3.1 mmolc L–1) according to its water requirement and 20 % extra water was allowed to infiltrate each time. Three leachate were collected during Sesbania, five during rice and four during wheat crop. One leachate was collected at pre-planting irrigation (Rouni) of rice. It was observed that the treatment from where Sesbania was harvested (T2) caused more salts leaching as compared to other treatments. Net salt removal was observed only during rice crop while during rest of the crops there was salt deposition in soil. Net CO32‾ removal increased while that of HCO3‾ decreased throughout the study period showing an increase in pH of soil solution phase. Similarly Ca2+ + Mg2+ removal remained less while that of Na+ more but similar with all the treatments than that of added through irrigation water indicating ineffectiveness of Sesbania either in the form of harvest or incorporate into the soil. It is opined that salts/ionic removal is not sufficient enough to coup with the amelioration of calcareous saline sodic soils.
  Shahzada A. Saleem , Ahmad K. Baloch , Musa Kaleem Baloch , Ambreen A. Saddozai and Abdul Ghafoor
  The influence of hot water treatment on the ripening/curing of Dhakki dates is studied. In the first part of the experiment, the time of dipping in hot water is fixed to 5 min and temperature of the hot water varied for 35, 70 and 93°C. For the next set of the experiment the dipping time varied for 1, 3, 5, or 7 min while the temperature for the dip in hot water retained constant at 70°C, besides carrying out a simple water wash treatment to conceive absolute advantage of the hot water dip treatment. The treated samples are then allowed to ripen/cure for 72 h under air circulated cabinet dehydrator adjusted at 38-40°C. The effectiveness of the treatments is evaluated by assessing texture, taste and overall acceptability of the products, determining also the degree of fruit ripeness. The treatment with 70°C performed better than 35 and 93°C furnishing with 55% product yield of acceptable quality. The yield of improved quality product is further increased to 70% on the optimization of treatment time to 3 min. The ripening of Dhakki dates does not require the fruits to stay on tree beyond fully mature doka stage for want of dong formation and hence saves at least 2 weeks hang-on period. By implementation of the technology it is highly likely to cut down the overall expected losses and expenses considerably, besides improving quality and yield of the product reasonably.
  Kashif Waseem , Abdul Ghafoor , Rahmat Ullah Khan and Mohammad Amjad Nadeem
  The differences in sowing dates and row spacing were highly significant for plant stand. Maximum plant stand (53.77 plants/m2) was recorded in the plots sown on 20th October and the wider row spacing of 45 cm produced the maximum plant stand of 53.88 plants/m2. Significantly, 20th October crop gave the maximum plant height of 24.58 cm but row spacing did not effect statistically on the plant height. Sowing dates and row spacing did not show any significant effect on the number of leaves per plant. However, maximum number of leaves 10.98/plant was obtained in the plots sown on 20th October, broadcast produced the maximum 11.02 number of leaves per plant. Fresh and dried foliage yield was significantly affected by the varioust row spacing but was not affected by different sowing dates and their interaction. However, plots sown on 20th October gave the highest fresh yield of 1753.33 Kg/ha while broadcast ledby obtaining the maximum fresh foliage yield of 1962.78 Kg/ha. Almost the similar trend was observed in the dried foliage yield. The differences among sowing dates were not whereas row spacing were highly significant in terms of total fresh yield. Plots sown on 20th October produced significantly the highest yield of 6249 Kg/ha as compared to other sowing dates while broadcast again gained the maximum total fresh yield of 6474 Kg/ha.
  Sagheer Ahmad , Abdul Ghafoor , Manzoor Qadir and M. Zamir Khan
  A calcareous saline-sodic soil (pHs= 8.26, ECe = 9.07 dS m‾1, SAR = 37.90, CaCO3 = 8.58%, texture = sandy clay loam) packed in concrete lysimeters was tested for phytoremediation. The treatments were: No-Sesbania (SO), Sesbania-harvested (SH) and Sesbania-incorporated (SI) before flowering. Rice-wheat crop rotation was followed after Sesbania. Each crop was irrigated with high RSC water (3.1 mmolc L‾1) according to its water requirement and 20% additional water was allowed to infiltrate to carry down salts. Thirteen leachates were collected during the course of study. At termination of the experiment, pHs of soil increased while ECe and SAR decreased with all the treatments, change was more at 15-30 cm soil depth compared to that of 0-15 cm. The ECe: SAR ratio decreased with all the treatments showing an increase in Na+ hazard. It suggests that the use of water having high RSC could not be useful for reclamation without the use of a chemical amendment (Ca2+ source) and phytoremediation seems of little usefulness to improve soil under such conditions.
  Falak Noor , Muhammad Ashraf and Abdul Ghafoor
  Phenotypic and genotypic variances, heritability in broad sense (h2), genetic advance (GA), correlation and path coefficient analyses were conducted for yield and yield components in 30 genotypes of chickpea under rainfed conditions. Medium to high genetic variance was observed for days to flowering, maturity, secondary branches and 100-seeds weight, whereas for other characters, low to medium heritablity (broad sense) was observed along with low to high genetic advance. Improvement of these traits thorough direct selection could be limited from germplasm used in the present study. Days to flowering, days to maturity and 100-seed weight exhibited high heritablity coupled with high genetic advance, hence crop improvement through these traits could be possible by simple selection. It was concluded that to improve grain yield emphasis should be given on development of chickpea cultivars with higher seed weight and biological yield. To break undesirable linkage of biological yield Vs harvest index and grain yield Vs harvest index, bi-parental mating among selective parents is suggested for further improvement. Both correlation and path analyses indicated that pods per plant and 100-seed weight were potent contributors to grain yield through direct effects. Seven elite accessions which produced higher grain yield than both the checks were selected and suggested for further evaluation under various ecological zones for adaptation.
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