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Articles by Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh
Total Records ( 3 ) for Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh
  Khaled Abu-Alruz , Ayman Suliman Mazahreh , Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh , Amer Al Omari and Jihad M. Quasem
  Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium) it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stretchability. The apparatus was used to evaluate the effect of five types of emulsifier salts under different processing conditions. Results: It was found that by adding 0.2% (w/w) Puromelt C1 or Monosodium phosphate to the brine of white brined cheese, higher levels of stretchability and meltability were induced after 2-4 weeks of storage. Conclusion: Addition of emulsifying salts was proved to be effective method in inducing meltability and stretchability of white brined cheese. Type of salt, its concentration, type of cheese and soaking time are factors that should be controlled to attain the optimum results.
  Damanhouri Mohammad Sai`d , Ayman S. Mazahreh , Heba Hammad , Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh and Khaled Shaker Al-Saraireh
  Problem statement: Improper use of water by Jordanian families accombined with acute shortage in water resources. Approach: This study aimed to raise the degree of the environmental awareness regarding the significance of reducing kitchen water consumption of the Jordanian families living in Amman and to provide them with the necessary knowledge and practices about the right practices to reduce water consumption. Results: The results revealed that the average consumption of kitchen water before the environmental awareness about water consumption was 59.5 L day-1 and after raising the awareness was reduced to 49.8 L day-1, with an average of 9.7 L day-1 which is a very vital indicator. The difference in the consumption were found to be more for the families consisting of (10-14) members where the average differences was 12-14 L day-1, but after environmental awareness differences were all statistically significant with all the other groups of family members. The average difference of consumption by family of members aged from (6-9) was (10-39) L daily and it was statistically significant in the family group of (2-5). The family group of (2-5) showed an average difference of 7.25 L daily. However, the family of with members aged between (15-22) years was the best in making use of raising the degree of environmental awareness to preserve water and reduce its consumption. The study also showed that the differences of consumption were more for the family groups of the average of income (601-1000) JD/month. The study also revealed that there is a positive relationship (0.801) regarding the amount of the consumed water and the number of utensils used through the three meals of day after raising the degree of environmental awareness in this study which shows the necessity of education the consumers to reduce the number of utensils, to reduce the amount of lost water out of consumed water. Conclusion: It can be concluded that raising awareness by holding sessions for the families is about water consumption is a reliable method to rationalize their consumption.
  Adnan M. Khalil , Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh , Ayman S. Mazahreh , Mohmmad S. Al-Damanhoory and Jihad M. Quasem
  Problem statement: The current research investigated the utilization of soft wood waste as a feedstock to produce a value-added product-fuel ethanol. Approach: The main issue in converting soft wood waste to fuel ethanol is the accessibility of the polysaccharides for breaking down into monosaccharides. This study focused on the use of steam as the pretreatment method. The governing factors for the effectiveness of steam pretreatment are steam temperature and retention times. Following steam pretreatment, soft wood waste was subjected to acid hydrolysis. The sugars released by acid hydrolysis were fermented in series chemical reactions that convert sugars to ethanol. The fermentation reaction was caused by yeast, which feed on the sugars. Results: Steam pretreatment was able to improve both glucose yields from acid hydrolysis and ethanol yields from fermentation. The results obtained from this study showed that steam pretreated soft wood waste are a heterogeneous material. So biomass goes through a size-reduction step to make it easier to handle and to make the ethanol production process more efficient. Steam treatment on soft wood waste increased the hydrolysis of cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Following 24 h of diluted or concentrated acid hydrolysis, a maximum cellulose conversion of 20.5% was obtained. Similarly, sugars to ethanol conversions were improved by steam treatment. Maximum sugar to ethanol conversion of 40.7% was observed. Conclusion: It was recommended that the hydrolysis process be done for 40 min to obtain the maximum sugars yield in a reasonable period of time.
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