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Articles by B.J. Rude
Total Records ( 4 ) for B.J. Rude
  B.E. Hagens , C.W. Dunaway , N.C. Whitley and B.J. Rude
  The objective of this study was to determine apparent nutrient digestibilities and nitrogen retention of a cracked cotton seed diet compared to a whole cottonseed diet. To determine apparent nutrient digestibilities and N retention, 10 male goats (28±5.6 kg) were housed in metabolism crates and fed diets consisting of 22.5% alfalfa pellets, 56% milo, 1.5% mineral premix and either: 20% cracked cottonseed (CRACKED); or 20% whole cottonseed (WHOLE). Dry matter intake was greater for wethers consuming WHOLE compared to those consuming CRACKED (p = 0.0057, 0.92 and 0.58 kg day-1, respectively; p = 0.0560, 3.20 and 2.36% BW day-1, respectively). There were no differences (p>0.10) between WHOLE and CRACKED for DM digestibility (76.8 and 73.7%, respectively) and OM (77.8 and 75.4%, respectively). However, ash digestibility was greater (p = 0.0083) for WHOLE compared to CRACKED (58.8 and 44.0%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber tended to be more (p = 0.0683) digestible by animals fed WHOLE (55.6%) than CRACKED (42.8%). Digestibility of ADF was not different (p>0.10) for wethers consuming WHOLE and CRACKED (38.8 and 35.7%, respectively). Wethers consuming WHOLE (84.9%) digested more (p = 0.0051) fat than those fed CRACKED (76.0%). Additionally, crude protein was more digestible (p = 0.0002) for WHOLE (75.5%) compared to CRACKED (65.2%) and N retention was greater (p = 0.0005) by goats fed WHOLE (15.8 g day-1) compared to those fed CRACKED (1.2 g day-1). To further investigate, the effect of cracking cottonseed a timed (0.5-48 h) IVDMD was performed. Degradation of DM was different for all incubation times (p = 0.0001; from 0.5-48 h) for cracked cottonseed compared to whole cottonseed. These results indicate that cracking cottonseed has a negative influence on apparent nutrient total tract digestibilities of whole cottonseed.
  V.T. Nguyen , A.I. Orr , D.G. St. Louis and B.J. Rude
  Objectives of this study were to compare supplementation of corn or soybean hulls against changes in apparent digestion and ruminal parameters. Six ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW 182 ± 24.8 kg) received bermudagrass Hay (HAY); hay, corn (0.445 % Body Weight (BW) and Soybean Meal (SBM, 0.127% BW; CORN); or hay, Soybean Hulls (SBH; 0.607 % BW) and SBM (0.127 % BW; HULLS) using 33 Latin Rectangle. At 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h post-feeding supplements, ruminal fluid was analyzed for pH, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) and NH3-N. Feeds ruminally incubated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 h were analyzed for Dry Matter (DM), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and Crude Protein (CP) disappearance. Ruminal pH decreased (p< 0.01) when steers consumed CORN (6.54-5.89) or HULLS (6.63-6.07). At 0 h, no differences (p< 0.52) in total VFA occurred among HAY, CORN and HULLS (138.3, 143.9 and 149.2 mM L 1, respectively). At 4, 6 and 8 h post-feeding, VFA concentrations were greater (p< 0.001) when steers consumed HULLS than CORN and both were greater than those fed HAY. Disappearance ratios of hay DM, NDF and CP did not differ for HAY, CORN, or HULLS (ranging from 0.773-1.175) whereas hay ADF ratios were greater (p< .04) from 6-16 h when feeding HULLS. Data suggest that, compared to corn, SBH produce positive associative effects that may support more efficient ruminal digestion of low-quality bermudagrass hay. In situ incubation revealed limited effects upon hay digestion, under parameters of the current trial.
  A.I. Orr , V.T. Nguyen , A. Webb , D.G. St. Louis and B.J. Rude
  During balance trial, 12 steers received hay with: no supplement (HAYB); corn 0.445% body weight (BW; CORNB); or SBH 1.16% BW (HULLSB). Hay Dry Matter Intake (DMI) was not different (p = .68; between 1.15 and 1.32%). Total DMI was greater (p< .01) for steers fed HULLSB (2.37%) than HAYB (1.31%) or CORNB (1.66%). Apparent Dry Matter (DM) and Organic Matter (OM) digestibilities were greater (p = .01) when fed CORNB (69.91 and 71.23%) or HULLSB (70.47 and 72.12%) than HAYB (57.54 and 59.12%). Apparent neutral (NDF) and acid (ADF) detergent fiber digestibilities were not different (p = .09; between 635.4 and 73.69%). Apparent CP and GE digestibilities were less (p = .02) when fed HAYB (53.63 and 57.19%) than CORNB (703.7 and 69.68%) or HULLSB (63.85 and 70.06%), while apparent CP and GE utilization were greater (p< .01) when fed HULLSB (0.46 kg d 1 and 14.09 Mcal d 1, respectively) than CORNB (0.13 kg d 1 and 9.83 Mcal d 1, respectively) or HAYB (-0.19 kg d 1 and 6.33 Mcal d 1, respectively). During digestion trial, 6 cannulated steers receiving hay with: no supplement (HAYD); corn 0.455% BW (CORND); or SBH 0.607% BW (HULLSD). Hay DMI was not different (p = .18; ranging from 0.123-0.151%). Total DMI of steers fed HULLSD and CORND was greater (p< .01; 1.98 and 2.08%, respectively) than those fed HAYD (1.26%). Apparent DM, OM and CP digestion by steers fed HAYD was less (p< .01; 52.85, 53.41 and 49.23%, respectively) than CORND (61.98, 62.77, 64.72%, respectively) or HULLSD (65.68, 66.68 and 67.54%, respectively). Apparent NDF and ADF digestion were greater (p = .01) when fed HULLSD, (63.95 and 64.45%, respectively) than CORND (52.82 and 49.59%, respectively) or HAYD (53.89 and 50.29%, respectively). Supplementing bermudagrass hay with corn or SBH enhanced total DMI and apparent DM, OM and CP digestion. Supplementation also increased CP and GE utilization while SBH supplementation tended to increased fiber digestion.
  I.O. Adam , B.J. Rude , P.L. Ryan , D.L. Christiansen , N.M. Filipov , Veysel Akay , N.S. Hill and B.P. Fitzgerald
  Glucomannan modified for greater ergot alkaloid affinity was fed to mares to evaluate its efficacy as a dietary ergot alkaloid adsorbent. Mares were fed bermudagrass hay along with one of four feed mixtures containing either endophyte-free (E-) or toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue seed. All rations based on toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue seed contained 1.69 ppm ergot alkaloids on a dry matter (DM) basis. Modified GLMN was provided at 0 (E+), 5 (E+5), or 10 g (E+10) twice daily. Efficacy of ergot alkaloid adsorption by GLMN was evaluated by measuring alkaloid consumption vs. fecal and urine excretion. Blood metabolites and hormones were evaluated as physiological indicators of ergot elimination. Hay and total DM intake (DMI) was not affected (p = 0.59) and ranged from 1.17 to 1.33 and 2.0 to 2.15% BW/d, respectively. Ergot alkaloid concentrations in feces (p = 0.02; 31.02 to 225.53 ng g-1) and urine (p < 0.01; 0.96 to 37.12 ng mg-1 creatinine) were greater for mares receiving E+, E+5, or E+10 than E- and supplemental GLMN did not alter urinary ergot alkaloid excretion. No differences were found within treatment phase for plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC; p = 0.24; 4.94 to 8.68 ng mL-1), serum cortisol (p = 0.14; 4.48 to 5.69 μg dL-1), or PRL (p = 0.40; 2.89 to 3.85 ng mL-1). Findings are inconclusive and further investigation is needed to determine the efficacy of feeding modified GLMN to mares grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.
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