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Articles by B.S. Ismail
Total Records ( 8 ) for B.S. Ismail
  B.S. Ismail , M. Sameni and M. Halimah
  Pesticide adsorption and desorption are important processes that influence the amount of pesticide retained in the soil matrix and its subsequent movement in the soil profile. A study was made on the adsorption-desorption and mobility of the herbicide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in two ricefield soils in the Kerian district, located in the state of Perak, North West Malaysia. Adsorption studies were conducted using the batch equilibrium technique and mobility was studied using a soil column under laboratory conditions. The adsorption and desorption studies fit the Freundlich equation, the adsorption coefficient (Kd) of the clay loam and clay soils were 33.83 and 18.12 L kg-1 and the 1/nads values were found to be lower than unity. The total percentage desorption from the clay loam and clay soils after the fourth desorption process was 18.31 and 28.33%, respectively. Complete leaching of the chemical through the soil column was not observed under the conditions of the present study, as the chemical was not detected in the leachate. The total amount of 2,4-D found in the clay loam and clay soil columns were 66.96 and 72.28% with 5 mm of simulated rainfall per day. The results obtained indicate the importance of organic matter in adsorption-desorption and mobility of 2,4-D in the Malaysian soils studied.
  J. Khairiah , Y. Ding-Woei , J. Habibah , R. Ahmad-Mahir , A. Aminah and B.S. Ismail
  The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals in the soil and in the plant parts (fruits, leaves and roots) of two cultivars of guava. The study was carried out at the Sungai Wangi Plantation in Sitiawan, Perak, Malaysia. Heavy metals in the soil were extracted using the sequential extraction method. Heavy metals in the soil and plants were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. In general, it was found that the concentration of heavy metals in the soil was low and no Cu was detected in any fraction of the soil. Ni was detected in the RR fraction of all the four blocks studied and ranged from 2.71 to 4.52 mg kg-1. Cd was detected in all fractions of the four blocks except in the AR fraction of block 3. The concentration of Pb was considerably low in the soil of this plantation. Pb was not detected in the AR fraction of the four blocks. Mn was detected in all fractions. In the guava plants, Pb and Cu were not detected in all parts of the plants except that Cu (0.01 mg kg-1) was detected in the seeds from block 1. Of the heavy metals, only Fe was found in all plant parts from the four blocks. Similarly Zn was also found in all plant parts except those plants sampled from block 2. In conclusion, it can be stated that the concentration of heavy metals in both soil and guava plants from the Sungai Wangi Plantation at Sitiawan, Perak was considerably low.
  Hossein Mohammadi and B.S. Ismail
  Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different herbicides on broadleaf weed density and growth as well as the growth and yield components of wheat. It also examined the effects of weed control (by herbicides and hand weeding) on the growth and yield of wheat, the economic benefits of weed control and aspects of environmental safety. Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out at the Mullah Ghulam Agriculture Research Centre, Afghanistan. Four different types of herbicides namely, methyl chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) (Agroxone® at 25 1 L ha–1), triasulfuron (Amber® at g a.i kg–1), tribenuron methyl (Express® 25 g a.i kg–1) and pyroxsulam (Merit® at 240 g a.i kg–1) were tested. The manufacturers’ recommended dosage for triasulfuron was applied at the rate of 120 L ha–1. The other three post-emergence herbicides were applied at the rate of 350 L ha–1. The herbicides were applied individually at 25 days after sowing (DAS). In another treatment, the weeds were hand weeded at 25, 50 and 75 DAS, while the control plots and were left unweeded. The data was analyzed using SPSS, one-way ANOVA and the Duncan’s test for comparison of means. Results: The results showed that the highest grain yield (2936 kg ha–1) was obtained from the hand weeded plots, where yields were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the other treatments. The lowest grain yield of wheat (1855.75 kg ha–1) was obtained from the unweeded plots. It was observed that the population density of the broad leaf weeds was lower in the hand weeded plots than that in the other treatment plots. It was observed that tribenuron methyl effectively controlled the weed density of Amaranthus bouchonii, Convolvulus arvensis, Acroptilon repense and Polygonum aviculare at 30 DAS. Conclusion: The study showed that the significantly higher hand weeding treatment followed by treatments with MCPA and triasulfuron herbicides were more effective in case of yield components of wheat and also decreased the population of broad leaf weeds.
  J.L. Chong , R. Wickneswari , B.S. Ismail and S. Salmijah

This study reports the results of the partial DNA sequence analysis of the 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant (R) and glyphosate-susceptible (S) biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn from Peninsular Malaysia. Sequencing results revealed point mutation at nucleotide position 875 in the R biotypes of Bidor, Chaah and Temerloh. In the Chaah R population, substitution of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) resulted in the change of threonine (Thr106) to proline (Pro106) and from C to thymidine (T) in the Bidor R population, leading to serine (Ser106) from Pro106. As for the Temerloh R, C was substituted by T resulting in the change of Pro106 to Ser106. A new mutation previously undetected in the Temerloh R was revealed with C being substituted with A, resulting in the change of Pro106 to Thr106 indicating multiple founding events rather than to the spread of a single resistant allele. There was no point mutation recorded at nucleotide position 875 previously demonstrated to play a pivotal role in conferring glyphosate resistance to E. indica for the Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor, Melaka R populations. Thus, there may be another resistance mechanism yet undiscovered in the resistant Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor and Melaka populations.

  S. Norela , M.S. Saidah , A. Maimon and B.S. Ismail
  This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PM10 and air composition in the vicinity of the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve within the city of Kuala Lumpur. Sampling of PM10 was conducted using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) with a flow rate of 1.13 m3 air min-1 for a total period of 24 h. The composition of PM10 analyzed constituted anions (SO42¯, NO3¯, Cl¯), cations (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+) and heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mg, Cu, Fe and Mn). The concentrations of SO42¯, NO3¯ and NH4+ ions were determined using the HACH spectrophotometer, whilst Cl¯ ions were measured using the argentometric method. The total mean concentration of PM10 for the three sampling stations was 13.44±7.12 μg m-3 (station 1), 17.91±4.56 μg m-3 (station 2) and 20.23±4.34 μg m-3 (station 3), compared to 4.27±1.67 μg m-3 recorded at the non-urban Bangi Forest Reserve. The highest mean concentration of anions and cations for the three stations was for SO42¯ ions, followed by Cl¯, NO3¯, Na+, K+, Mg2+, NH4+ and Ca2+. For heavy metals, Fe recorded the highest value, followed by Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mg, Mn and Cd. Air quality within the vicinity of the study area for the sub-index of PM10 was found to be good, with the highest API value recorded during the study period being 14 at station 3.
  Siti Humaira Haron , B.S. Ismail and Mohd Talib Latif
  A study was conducted to determine the most common insecticides found in the total suspended particulate and rainwater, in an agricultural area in Kedah, Malaysia where insecticides such as endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were commonly used. The samples of total suspended particulate and rain water were collected using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) equipped with fiber glass filter and glass bottles respectively, for a specific period (September 2010-March 2011) at four different sampling sites within the agricultural area in Kedah. The composition of the insecticides (cypermethrin, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in both suspended particulate and rain water samples were determined by a Gas Chromatograph (GC) equipped with a micro electron capture detector (μ-ECD) after extraction with acetone and toluene (9:1). Results showed that chlorpyrifos was recorded as having the highest concentration in the suspended particulate matter (543.6 pg m-3) and cypermethrin, the highest concentration in rain water. The concentrations of the insecticides showed seasonal dependence based on the application periods. This study also indicated that basic training on precautionary measures and correct usage and handing of insecticides should be undertaken by the Muda Agricultural Development Authority to ensure that the level of insecticidal residues in the air and rain water of the agricultural area remained safe.
  Mehdi Sameni , B.S. Ismail and M. Halimah
  The aim of this study was to investigate the sorption kinetics and effects of pH, concentration and temperature on the adsorption of 2,4-D onto soil. Two types of Malaysian ricefield soils were used for this study; namely clay loam and clay soil obtained from the Kerian ricefields in Perak. Agriculture in North West Malaysia relies on the widespread use of herbicides to promote crop performance. Over-application of many herbicides is commonplace, however and may compromise soil and water quality and ultimately human health, within the region. Adsorption experiments were conducted using a batch equilibration technique. The HPLC-UV were used to detect 2,4-D residues in the supernatant. Adsorption equilibrium time was achieved within 2 and 4 h for the clay loam and clay soils, respectively. The percentage of 2,4-D adsorption onto soil was found to be higher in clay loam than in clay soils. Results of the study demonstrated that adsorption of 2,4-D in both soil types was higher at low pH and with increased pH the adsorption decreased. Likewise, the adsorption of 2,4-D was found to be sensitive to temperature, with low temperature significantly increasing the adsorption capacity of the soil. Results also suggested that 2,4-D sorption by soil is concentration dependent.
  Dewi Hidayati , Norela Sulaiman , B.S. Ismail and M. Shuhaimi-Othman
  Investigation of the effect of flowing mud volcano lava to the aquatic life in the river using study case of LUSI mud in Indonesia had been conducted by in-situ biomonitoring including measurement of biological response of caged fish and river body quality. Fishes were caged in the downstream sections of the mud effluent and control cage was placed at the upstream section. Similar hierarchy of metal found in the effluent, water and sediment i.e., Al>Fe> Pb>Mn>Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd. Concentrations of Total Suspended Solid (TSS), total aluminum, total iron and lead at the downstream effluent site which showed maximum values of ([TSS = 4177] [Al = 23.70] [Fe = 6.97] [Pb = 1.27] mg L-1) were significantly higher than that of the upstream control ([TSS = 381] [Al = 4.30] [Fe = 1.38] [Pb = 0.38] mg L-1). Excluding lead in the downstream sites (153 mg kg-1), all sediment levels were found to be below the possible effect level. Metal levels in fish bodies from the downstream sites showed higher level than control, with maximum level observed in aluminum species, 377.9 mg kg-1. Fishes which were exposed in the downstream sampling sites showed low survival rate value of 10-0% with survival period of = 21 days, gill alteration in a level of irreparable lesion with Histopathologic Alteration Index (HAI) value of 121-233 while the fishes in the control cage had a survival rate of 93-66% for 28 days and normal state of gills with HAI value of 0.0-0.3. Mainly by increasing colloidal aluminum LUSI mud volcano lava into the river results in adverse effect on the downstream water quality and fish life.
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