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Articles by Jalil Khara
Total Records ( 5 ) for Jalil Khara
  Samaneh Rahmatzadeh and Jalil Khara
  Among the harmful components of sunlight is ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths 220-380 nm. UV-C (220-280 nm) is one of the three UV spectra that is filtering out in the atmosphere, but it can cause oxidative and morphological changes in the some conditions. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza can resist many plants against stress conditions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Azar2) plants colonized by three species of mycorrhizae namely Glomus etunicatum, Glomus intraradices and Glomus veruciforme were used in this study. They have been exposed to UV-C (245 nm) light for 7 h. We measured dry and fresh weight of shoot and root systems and length of the longest roots and leaves. Also, we measured percentage of root length colonization. Furthermore, number of mesophyll cells in each treatment is determined by staining the leaf cross sections. Mycorrhizal treated plants showed increased root length colonization in comparition to non-mycorrhizal treatment. However, no significant difference was observed in the leaves length all of the treatments. Also, fresh and dry weight was increased in UV treated mycorrhizal plants in comparition to non-inoculated ones. Infection percentages and number of mesophyll cells had not significant difference between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants.
  Parviz Malekzadeh , Jalil Khara and Shadi Farshian
  Soil microorganisms have been shown to possess several mechanisms capable of altering metal bioavailability for uptake into roots. In addition, root mycorrhizal associations have been shown to affect the rate of metal uptake. There is evidence that exposure of plants to excess concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu results in oxidative injury. In this study, effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum on tolerance of Cu toxicity in tomato plants was studied. In order to prepare seedling medium, we used washed and sterilized sand and agricultural soil. Tomato seeds were surface sterilized and planted in two pots. One filled just with sterilized sand (for non-mycorrhizal treatments) and the other filled with sterilized sand mixed with G. intraradices mycorrhizal inoculum. We were certain about complete colonization after 4 weeks, so we transferred three seedlings to each main pot. Plants grew in growth chamber for nine weeks. During growth period plants received modified Hoagland’ s solution (with half P content) with Cu concentration of 0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 mM CuSO4 in triplicates. Antioxidant enzymes activity, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) and Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX) and Root Length Colonization (RLC) percentage in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were measured. APX activity in mycorrhizal shoots increased but there was no significant correspondent increase in roots of these plants. GPX activity in mycorrhizal roots increased but there was no significant correspondent increase in shoots of these plants. Activity of this enzyme in roots and shoots of mycorrhizal plantshigher than non-mycorrhizal plants. Estimation of root length colonizatinon by gridline intersect method, increase in Cu concentration, colonization percentage decreased significantly. The data show the possible role of mycorrhiza in plant protection against Cu toxicity.
  Latifeh Pourakbar , Masoud Khayami , Jalil Khara and Tayabeh Farbodnia
  Maize seedlings treated with various concentrations (25-100 μM) of copper for 15 days. A progressive decrease of root length and biomass with increasing Cu in nutrient solution was observed. The roots accumulated significantly higher amounts of Cu than the above ground parts. Accumulation of copper resulted in more active lipid peroxidation in both roots and shoots, which was attributed to copper-induced additional oxidative stress. Activities of APX (ascorbate peroxidase), GPX (guaiacol peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase) and CAT(catalase) were higher in both roots and shoots in response to copper accumulation. Changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities suggest that oxidative damage may be involved in copper toxicity.
  Azam Khalighi Jamal-Abad and Jalil Khara
  Soil pollution by heavy metals has become a critical environmental concern due to its potential adverse ecological effects. In this study we have investigated the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus veruciforme) on some physiological growth parameters, such as chlorophyll content, amount of total soluble sugar and total protein of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Azar2) and we compared these factors in mycorrhizal (AM) and non-mycorrhizal (non-AM) plants. The content of chlorophyll in the absence of Cd in AM-plants was higher than non-AM plants. In the presence of mycorrhiza the content of chlorophyll a and b was decreased by increase in Cd concentration in both AM and non-AM plants. Furthermore, the amount of total soluble sugars and total proteins of shoots and roots have been increased in parallel to exogenous Cd concentration. In roots of AM-plants, the increase of soluble sugars was more dramatic in the presence of 2500 ┬Ám, but in the roots of non-AM plants this increase was step-by-step. The increase of total soluble sugars was gradually and significant in shoots of both AM and non-AM plants. The content of total proteins in shoots was raised with the increased level of Cd treatment, gradually and non-significantly.
  Samaneh Rahmatzadeh and Jalil Khara
  UV-C radiation (220-280 nm) is known to causing damage in some physiological growth parameters such as chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents. In this study, effect of some species of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tolerance of UV-C radiation in wheat plants was studied. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv.Azar2) plants colonized by three species of mycorrhizae namely Glomus etunicatum, Glomus intraradices and Glomus veruciforme were used in this study. They have been exposed to UV-C (254 nm) light for 7 h (28 days, 15 min each day). We measured total proteins, sugars, chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids. Our study showed that UV-C radiation decreases chlorophylls, carotenoids and sugars contents. But this effect on total proteins content has not been significant. However, mycorrhizal fungi could increase all of these factors in comparison to non-mycorrhizal samples. Therefore, these fungi species can increase above growth factors of wheat plants, apparently.
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