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Articles by K. Smith
Total Records ( 3 ) for K. Smith
  J Aronson and K. Smith

This paper reports the early findings of a qualitative, longitudinal study of women managing health and social services in southern Ontario—a context that has been subject to successive rounds of restructuring and managerial reforms. Study participants, all women with extensive practice backgrounds and long-standing commitments to progressive public services, were critical of yet deeply implicated in organizational practices they judged at odds with the interests of clients and communities. The findings reveal how they negotiate this complex positioning within and against the logic of managerialism to find ways to insert social justice agendas. Even as managerial imperatives pressed them to subordinate these agendas, they found ways to extend the reach of their programmes to those increasingly excluded from receipt of public support and to politicize and expand the scope of their organizations' work. By naming such practices and strategies—often experienced in isolation and as somewhat improvised and formless—the study seeks to contribute to the critical literature on social service management. Participants' experiences open up important questions about both the strains and the opportunities in managers' positioning that will be the focus of ongoing data-gathering and analysis.

  A.K. Abdalla , K. Smith and J. Lucey
  Background: Measuring of particle size, particle size distribution, viscosity and colour of powder is essential as it is directly related to powder behaviour and physical properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, physical quality parameters of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and skim milk powder (SMP) including, particle size, particle size distribution at diameters d10, d50 and d90 in a cumulative size distribution, colour and viscosity were determined. Low, medium and high heat NFDM/SMP samples from US domestic producers were utilized. Results: Original powder samples had significant variations in lightness value L* (93.85-96.37) as well as b* value (12.32-17.99) based on the product source. The particle size in volume weighted mean, D [4, 3] of milk powders showed significant variations with a range of 29.32-94.24 μm. Significant differences in the viscosity of reconstituted milk were found with high heat treated powders having greater viscosity. Conclusion: Differences were noted between processors indicating differences in processing conditions between manufacturers, rather than the actual type of milk powder product.
  A.K. Abdalla , K. Smith and J. Lucey
  Background and Objective: Sensory quality of milk powder is important as it can affect the quality of food products in which the powder is used as an ingredient. The objective of this study was to characterize flavor variability of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and Skim Milk Powder (SMP) produced in the US. Materials and Methods: In this study, samples of low, medium and high heat NFDM/SMP were obtained from four US processors. Attributes looked for were sweet, cooked/heated, animal, cardboard, paint, astringent, acid, bitter, milkfat, buttery, salt, caramelized and metallic. Attribute intensities were scaled using the 0-15 universal intensity scale characterized by the descriptive sensory analysis method. Results: Sensory evaluation showed that there were significant differences between NFDM/SMP samples for sensory attributes sweet, cooked/heated, animal, cardboard, paint and astringent. Differences noticed for attributes acid, bitter, milkfat, buttery, salt, caramelized and metallic were not significant. Medium and high heat powders tended to have a cooked flavor note. Conclusion: All the evaluated powder samples met the US standard grade requirement for flavor; however, there were significant differences among NFDM/SMP samples in regard to some sensory attributes. It may suggest that differences noted between samples were likely caused by processing conditions.
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