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Articles by M.A. Bamikole
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.A. Bamikole
  M.A. Bamikole , U.J. Ikhatua and A.E. Osemwenkhae
  The feasibility of using Chromolaena odorata leaf meal (COLM) in the feed of rabbit was investigated in a study that lasted for twelve weeks. Chromolaena odorata leaves were harvested, dried, crumbled and incorporated into five iso-nitrogenous and iso-calorific diets at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels of inclusion. Feed intake, weight gain and digestibility of the rabbits were monitored using a completely randomized design. Results showed that DM intake (g/d) of 41.42, 32.86, 32.66, 24.65 and 26.72 for 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% COLM diets respectively were not significantly different among diets that contained COLM, while only those of 10 and 20% COLM diets compared favourably with that of the control diet. Weight gain (g/d) of the rabbits were not significantly different in the control (7.73), 10% (6.30), 20% (6.64) and 30% (4.12) COLM diets, while the least weight gain (3.0g/d) from 40% COLM diet did not show any significant difference from those of other COLM diets. Feed conversion efficiency of the rabbits were found similar in all the diets (range = 0.11 in 40% to 0.19 in 0% COLM). Digestibility values were generally good, and were not significantly affected by diets in DM (58.57 - 74.00%) and NFE (74.77 - 81.94%) digestibilities. It is concluded that COLM can be incorporated into the feed of rabbits up to the level of 30% of the DM fed and still obtain good performance especially weight gain comparable to those fed on standard concentrate.
  I. Ikhimioya , O.A. Isah , U.J. Ikhatua and M.A. Bamikole
  Degradability characteristics of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) in four tree leaves and four crop residues were evaluated in this study using the nylon bag technique with three cannulated rams. The results revealed significant variations between the leaves and residues in terms of DM and CP degradability characteristics. The potential degradability of DM ranged from 65.94 to 96.69% in the leaves and 51.28 to 73.77% in the residues whereas DM disappearance after 48 hrs of incubation was from 43.27 to 73.50% and 34.03 to 54.27% respectively. Effective degradability (ED) of DM decreased with increase in outflow rates ranging from a low of 35.88% (k=0.05) to 72.67% (k=0.02) in the leaves and 26.59% (k=0.05) to 54.60% (k=0.02) in the residues. Potentially the degradability of CP in the leaves was between 22.41 and 57.38% and 22.87 and 57.19% in the residues. The least ED (k=0.05) of CP was 14.11% while the highest was 48.01% (k=0.02) in the leaves whereas the residues had a range between 13.20% (k=0.05) and 46.70% (k=0.02). Crude protein disappearance post-incubation for 48 hrs ranged between 17.63 and 53.81% and 14.34 and 53.07% in the leaves and residues respectively. The findings of this study showed that the DM compared with CP in the leaves and residues was more degradable in the rumen with the leaves better in this same regard. The information thus provided by this study could be useful in the planning of ruminant diets particularly in the dry season of the tropics.
  O.J. Babayemi and M.A. Bamikole
  Ruminants in the tropics are slow growing, arising from low quality feed. The use of indigenous legume trees and Guinea grass is a good strategy for an improved livestock performance. The nutrient composition and secondary metabolites of differently year of established Tephrosia candida leaf were determined. The mixtures of Tephrosia candida leaf and Guinea grass as treatments A (100% Tephrosia + 0% Guinea grass), B (75% Tephrosia + 25 Guinea grass), C (50% Tephrosia + 50% Guinea grass), D (25% Tephrosia + 75% Guinea grass) and E (0% Tephrosia + 100% Guinea grass) were incubated for in vitro gas production for 24 hours. The total gas (ml/200 mg DM) at post incubation was measured. Methane (mmol/200 mg DM) was evaluated by introducing 10 M NaOH into the content. Metabolizable energy (MJ/Kg DM) and organic matter digestibility (%) were calculated. Results showed that the crude protein (g/100 g DM) ranged between 19.33 and 23.18 while neutral detergent fibre (g/100 g DM) ranged from 25 – 32. The Tephrosia forages contained condensed tannin and steroids. The inclusion levels of the legume apparently increased the total gas production (range 1 – 6), metabolizable energy (range 2.99 – 4.75), organic matter digestibility (range 21.46 – 33.80) and methane (29.30 – 234). It is concluded that Tephrosia candida forage may be a good combination with Guinea grass for livestock production but may be higher than 50% inclusion in order to minimize energy loss through methane.
  O.J. Babayemi , R.A. Hamzat , M.A. Bamikole , N.F. Anurudu and O.O.Olomola
  Nutrient composition and qualitative analysis of saponin, tannin and steroids were determined. In vitro gas production of the tea leaf (TL) and STL were carried out in 24 h incubation. Metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were also predicted. NaOH (10 M) was introduced into the inoculums after 24 h, from which methane (CH4) production was measured. TL and STL had CP, CF, EE, ash and NDF 16.4 and 18.6%, 14 and 23%, 3.8 and 2.5%, 6.0 and 2.0%, 39.0 and 46.0% respectively. Qualitative evaluation of secondary metabolites showed the two stuffs contained condensed tannins and steroids. Saponin was found and enhanced methanogenesis in STL than TL. The cumulative gas produced at 24 h was 14 and 7 ml/200 mg DM for STL and TL respectively. The ME was similar but varied significantly (P < 0.05) in OMD, SCFA and CH4 productions. The result showed that spent tea leaf had potential to be used as protein and energy supplements for ruminants in the tropics.
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