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Articles by Mejda Daami-Remadi
Total Records ( 9 ) for Mejda Daami-Remadi
  Amel Kerkeni , Mejda Daami-Remadi , Neji Tarchoun and Mohamed Ben Khedher
  Seven fungi isolated from an animal manure compost are tested for their in vitro and in vivo antagonistic activity against Pythium ultimum, the causal agent of the cucumber damping-off. In vitro, dual culture experiments, observed after incubation at 25°C on PDA during 4 days, showed that six fungi inhibited by 18 to 61% the mycelial growth of P. ultimum, whereas one fungus showed no activity. Competition for media was the most remarkable mechanism of action noted on PDA. In vivo experiments, sterilized peat individually treated with Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma viride (strain 1 and strain 2), at a rate of 0.5 g L-1 and infested with P. ultimum was evaluated for its suppressive effect of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Mornegui) damping-off. Results showed the tested fungi, incorporated to the culture substrates, decreased the in vivo development of P. ultimum, but at variable degrees, comparatively to the untreated control. Damping-off was lower for cucumber plants treated with T. viride’ (strain 2) than those treated with Aspergillus sp. and with T. viride (strain 1). Aspergillus sp. isolated from compost, which was inactive in vitro, suppressed the cucumber damping-off by 69.4%.
  Amel Kerkeni , Mejda Daami-Remadi , Neji Tarchoun and Mohamed Ben Khedher
  Dual culture of some bacterial isolates obtained from animal manure compost extracts with F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, the causal agent of the Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of tomato, significantly inhibited the in vitro development of the pathogen comparatively to the untreated control. Among 14 isolates tested, 8 inhibited by 38 to 47% the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. The transplantation of tomato seedlings (cv. Riogrande) in peat, previously treated by bacterial suspensions and inoculated with a conidial suspension of the pathogen (107 spores mL-1), significantly reduced the Fusarium Crown and Root Rot severity compared to the untreated control. The most effective isolates were identified by means of the API system, as Chryseomonas luteola, Serratia liquifaciens and Aeromonas hydrophila.
  Amel Kerkeni , Mejda Daami-Remadi , Neji Tarchoun and Mohamed Ben Khedher
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  Fakher Ayed , Mejda Daami-Remadi , Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine and Mohamed El Mahjoub
  Three biological fungicides, Biocont-T, Funga stop and Polyversum constituted, respectively by Trichoderma harzianum, natural extracts (mint oil and citric acid) and Pythium oligandrum, were tested against F. oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi causing potato vascular wilt. Funga stop proved to be the most effective in inhibiting by 72 to 76% the mycelial growth of this pathogen on PDA media after incubation for six days at 25 °C. Biocont-T also limited its development by 37 to 63%. However, Polyversum showed a very little activity in controlling this fungus in vitro. All bio-fungicides reduced disease incidence compared to the untreated control. Funga stop and Biocont-T were the most active during the bioassay. Whereas, Polyversum had a lesser effect in controlling this disease.
  Khaled Hibar , Mejda Daami-Remadi , Fakher Ayed and Mohamed El Mahjoub
  Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is a new emerging pathogen in Tunisia. It causes Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR) of tomato. Being a new disease, no control methods are available. Therefore, looking for a solution to this pathogen is required. In this study, the efficacy of some chemical fungicides to suppress FORL was evaluated in vitro, in growth chamber as well as under greenhouse conditions. In in vitro tests, all fungicides inhibited mycelial growth of FORL at 75 to 90% with the exception of maneb which entailed the lowest growth inhibition estimated at 40%. Under growth chamber trials, with the exception of benomyl, the other tested fungicides (Hymexazol, Hydroxyquinolin, Sodium Tetraborohydrate Decahydrate, Oxyquinolin and Flutriafol+Thiabendazole) have significantly reduced disease incidence. Under greenhouse conditions, results were more encouraging. Indeed, the use of Hymexazol reduces the percentage of dead plants at 6.4%. This study demonstrated the efficacy of some chemical fungicides in controlling FORL especially when they were incorporated to the culture substrate.
  Fakher Ayed , Mejda Daami-Remadi , Hager Jebari , Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine and Mohamed El Mahjoub
  In 2005, a crown and root rot, a yellowing and a death of muskmelon plants were observed in some tunisian melon-growing regions. Isolation was made from diseased tissues. Twelve isolates of Fusarium solani were identified and used to inoculate melon-seedlings by the root dip method for 1 min. These 12 isolates caused typical symptoms of Fusarium crown rot and their pathogenicity indicated that they are identical to Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae. Disease severity on melon-plants, cv. “Ananas d’Amérique”, was estimated by indexes of the leaf damage and crown rot. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference between control and inoculated plants. A significant difference was also observed between some F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae isolates in causing leaf damage and crown rot and a negative effect was observed mainly on plant fresh weight revealing impact of this pathogen on muskmelon growth.
  Amel Kerkeni , Mejda Daami-Remadi , Neji Tarchoun and Mohamed Ben Khedher
  In vitro experiments by direct confrontation, were conducted to assess the inhibitory effect of nine compost extracts, made with different mixtures of animal manure proportions, on some phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, F. solani, F. graminearum, Fusicoccum amygdalis, Alternaria sp., Colletotrichum coccodes, Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, R. bataticola, Pythium sp. and Verticillium dahliae). Compost extracts decreased the radial growth of all fungi tested, except for Aspergillus niger. In fact, fungal radial growth inhibition ranged from 0 for A. niger to 63.17% for V. dahliae. Higher antifungal activity was also noted against F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and F. solani with 38.12 and 31.87%, respectively. However, lesser inhibition, of about 10.33%, was obtained against R. bataticola. Compost extract C2, based on 60% cattle manure, 30% sheep manure and 10% ground straw and compost extract C7, based on 40% cattle manure, 40% sheep manure and 20% vegetable wastes, were found to be the most effective against the fungi tested. These extracts contain an important microflora which seem to be involved in this antifungal activity.
  Amel Kerkeni , Mejda Daami-Remadi , Neji Tarchoun and Mohamed Ben Khedher
  Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma viride strain 2 and T. viride strain 1 isolated from an animal manure compost are tested for their in vitro and in vivo antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, the causal agent of the Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of tomato. Dual culture experiments, observed after incubation at 25°C on PDA during 5 days, showed that all tested fungi significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici comparatively to the untreated control. Inhibition varied from 25% for Trichoderma viride (strain 1) to 100% for Aspergillus sp. Competition for media was the predominant mechanism of action noted on PDA. In vivo, tomato plants (cv. Riogrande), simultaneously inoculated and treated individually by the compost fungi conidial suspensions (107 spores mL-1), showed reduced severity of the Fusarium Crown and Root Rot, when observed 30 days after transplantation, comparatively to the untreated control. The compost fungi T. viride (strain 1) was the most effective, it decreased severity of the disease by 48%.
  Mejda Daami-Remadi , Fakher Ayed , Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine , Khaled Hibar and Mohamed El Mahjoub
  Four Bacillus sp. isolates were individually essayed against Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum f.sp. tuberosi, F. graminearum and F. sambucinum following an in vitro dual culture plate technique and in vivo pre-inoculation tuber treatment. All tested bacterial isolates significantly reduced radial mycelial growth of Fusarium spp., on PDA after 3 days of incubation at 25°C, comparatively to the untreated controls. Light microscopic studies of antagonist x Fusarium spp. in vitro interaction showed several hyphal abnomalies traduced particularly by lesser mycelium density, severe hyphal lysis, lesser sporulation, mycelial cords formation and early chlamydospores induction observed only at the confrontation zone. Potato tubers, cv. Spunta, treated by Bacillus sp. 24 h before individually inoculation by Fusarium species, showed reduced dry rot development after 21 days of incubation at 25-27°C comparatively to untreated controls.
 
 
 
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