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Articles by Muhammad Ashraf
Total Records ( 12 ) for Muhammad Ashraf
  Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik , Muhammad Ashraf , Afsari Sharif Qureshi and Abdul Ghafoor
  Seventeen soybean varieties were evaluated for yield components at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during July to October 2002. Data were recorded for traits viz. leaf area, chlorophyll content, 1st pod height, days to 50% flowering, days to flowering completion, days to pod initiation, days to 50% maturity, plant height, number of pods per plant, number of branches per plant, number of unfilled pods, number of shattered pods, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil content, protein content. Data were analyzed for analysis of variance, heritability, correlation coefficient and path analysis. Results of analysis of variance revealed that there were highly significant differences among genotypes for all the characters. High heritability was recorded in 100 grain weight, days to maturity, days to flowering completion, days to pod initiation, leaf area, days to 50% flowering, oil contents, no. of shattered pods/plants and grain yield/plant, plant height and protein contents respectively indicating the additive type of gene action. On the basis of heritability selection for these traits will provide greatest improvement in soybean. Correlation coefficient of yield was significant and positive with leaf area, pods per plant and oil contents. Therefore, increase in these traits will ultimately increase the grain yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that days to pod initiation had maximum direct contribution to yield followed. Therefore, it is suggested that this characters can be considered as selection criteria in improving the bean yield of soybean genotypes
  Muhammad Imran , Muhammad Irshad , Muhammad Akbar Shahid and Muhammad Ashraf
  Nasopharyngeal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 100) and buffalo (n = 100) were collected and inoculated on the selective media for Pasteurella multocida i.e., Casein Sucrose Yeast agar supplemented with blood and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Isolated organisms were identified on the basis of cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Three samples from the buffalo were found positive for the growth of Pasteurella multocida while none of the samples from cattle gave positive results. Colonies of the positive samples were grayish, translucent with entire edges, approximately 1mm in diameter. All the isolates fermented sugars like glucose, sucrose and maltose while lactose was not fermented; furthermore isolates were positive for catalase, indole production and hydrogen sulphide tests and negative for voges proskeurs, methyl red and gelatin liquefaction tests. Isolates proved themselves pathogenic by killing rabbits within hours when inoculated experimentally.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain , Muhammad Ashraf , Hans- Werner Koyro , B. Huchzermeyer , Muhammad Yousaf and Muhammad Saeed Akhtar
  An investigation was conducted in central region of Punjab, Pakistan to study the relationship of mineral (Na) in soil, plantand animal systems to enable prediction of sodium status of three different classes of goats and sheep grazing the pasture. From goat and sheep ranch soil, forage, feed, waterand animal samples (Blood plasma, milk, faecesand urine) were collected fortnightly during winter and summer seasons. At goat ranch it was found that seasons did not affect soil, forageand plasma Na+ concentrations. These samples were lower than the required range in relation to Na+ levels. The fecal, urineand milk Na+ losses were found to be responsible for low plasma Na+ status in different goat classes. At sheep ranch soil, feedand plasma, milk and urine sodium concentrations in lactating sheep were affected by seasonal changes. Forage sodium level during summer was at marginal deficient and during winter it was slightly deficient. In lactating sheep plasma had marginal deficient level of sodium in winter and moderate deficient level in summer. While in non lactating sheep plasma sodium was also moderately deficient in summer and marginal deficient in winter and in male sheep moderately deficient level of sodium in plasma was found in summer only. Fecal and urine loss of sodium in lactating and non lactating animals was lower during winter than those during summer. Milk loss of sodium was found to be higher in winter than that in summer. From these results it is concluded that Na+ status of goats and sheep in this specific region needs supplementation with mixture of salt containing Na+ to enhance the Na+ levels of grazing animals.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Muhammad Ashraf , Muhammad Yasin Ashraf , Zia-ur-Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  A study was carried out to evaluate the cobalt status of grazing goats on the basis of cobalt concentration in soil, dietary sources, plasma, milk, faeces, and urine as affected by seasons and animal class. It was found that only forage had seasonal variation with grater concentration in winter than that in summer. Soil and forage Co concentration were inadequate for the normal requirements for plants and animals during both seasons. Positive association was found between plasma Co levels and sources of Co consumed by animals. Higher plasma Co concentration was found in male goats as compared to that in other groups while fecal Co concentration was higher in lactating goats that that in other classes during both seasons. Although the Co concentrations in forage, the principal dietary factor were deficient, but the plasma Co levels in all classes of goats were sufficiently high showing the contribution of feed and water in complementing the forage Co required by animals for normal body function. The overall Co status of goats may be considered adequate mainly due to feed supplement, since forage Co concentration was low to deficient.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Muhammad Ashraf , Muhammad Yasin Ashraf , Zia-ur-Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  The study was conducted at the Livestock Experimental Station Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, southern Punjab, Pakistan, to determine the translocation of mineral nutrients from soil to plants and from plants to goats and sheep. Soil and forage samples were collected fortnightly from two sites of the same farm, during winter and summer of 2001. Feed and water samples were also collected along with soil and forage to study the effect of mineral supplement contained in feed. Samples of blood, milk, urine and faeces were obtained from 60 animals consisting of 30 sheep and 30 goats during the two seasons of the year, grouped into 3 classes with 20 animals per class of each animal type as follows: Class 1 contained 10 lactating sheep or goats, class 2 comprised of 10 non-lactating sheep or goats and, class 3 consisted of 10 male sheep or goats. All the soil, forage, feed, water and animal samples were analysed for 10 minerals like Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Se2+. In the site having sheep population all the soil minerals except Co2+ and Se2+ were found to be above the critical levels and considered adequate for normal plant growth during both seasons, while Co2+ and Se2+ in the soil were deficient during both seasons. Forage Na+ and Zn2+ in summer were at marginal deficient levels and in winter only Na was slightly deficient. Feed Ca2+ levels were marginally deficient during both seasons for normal requirements of sheep. Soil samples taken from the pasture grazed by goats had marginal deficient levels of soil K+ in the summer season, moderate soil Na+ during winter and marginal deficient during summer and sever deficient levels of Co2+ and Se2+ during both seasons of the year. While forage contained severe deficient level of K+, moderate deficient level of Na+ and marginal deficient level of Co2+ during winter and marginal deficient Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+ and Se2+, moderate deficient level of Fe2+ and severe deficient levels of K+, Na+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ during summer season. Feed Ca2+ concentrations were moderately deficient during both seasons. The effects of feed supplement at both ranches in raising the plasma mineral level was different in different groups of animals in different seasons. The moderate deficient level of plasma minerals like Ca2+ and Na+, marginal deficient levels of K+ and Mg2+ during winter and summer and to that of Cu2+ during summer in lactating goats, while in non-lactating goats in plasma, moderate levels of Ca2+ and Na+ and marginal deficient levels of plasma K+ and Mg during both seasons were found. Plasma of male goats contained marginal deficient levels of Ca2+ during winter, K+ during both seasons and Mg2+ during summer, while moderate deficient levels of Ca2+ were found in summer and Na+ during both seasons of the year. In lactating sheep plasma had marginal deficient levels of Ca2+ in summer K+ and Na+ in winter, Mg2+ in both seasons and moderate deficient levels of Ca2+ in winter and K+ and Na+ in summer season, while in non-lactating sheep plasma Ca2+ was in moderate deficient level in winter and Na+ in summer. In addition, marginal levels of Ca2+ during summer and those of Na+ during winter and of K+ and Mg2+ during both seasons were observed. In male sheep plasma K+ and Mg2+ in both seasons. Ca2+ in summer and Na+ in winter were marginal deficient minerals while Ca2+ in winter and Na+ in summer were in moderate deficient levels. However, the supplementation of feed containing minerals seemed to be contributed much to the well being of the animals particularly with no micro mineral in plasma overwhelmingly deficient. No toxic accumulation of any mineral was found in forage or feed during this study. Based on mineral status of the animals, Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cu2+ were deficient in plasma which may be a factor for limiting livestock production in this specified region of Pakistan. Supplementation with fortified mixtures containing these elements in appropriate proportion with high bioavailability would seem adequate in these regions during both seasons of the year to increase the productivity of goats and sheep at that farm. Studies should be carried out to determine the need and economic benefits of mineral supplementation.
  Fida Hussain , Muhammad Ashraf , Syed Sadaqat Mehdi and Malik Tanveer Ahmad
  Eight bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were crossed in a diallel fashion and evaluated for heterosis in F1 generation for grain yield and other economic traits under leaf rust conditions. Highly significant differences were found among genotypes for all the traits studied. Significant positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis was observed for grain yield per plant in almost all crosses. Estimates for positive significant heterosis over mid and better parents for plant height were 68 and 32% of total crosses where as 44 and 35 crosses gave significant positive increased tillers per plant over their mid and better parents, respectively. Positive and significant heterotic effects were measured as 11.61, 61.90, 30.67, 2.3, 51.89, 126.64, 111.71 and 45.91% from crosses SA42 x Nacozari, MH 97 x Crow, Parula x Chenab70, Crow x Nacozari, Crow x Chenab70, SA42 x Nacozari, MH97 x SA42 and Nacozari x Chenab for plant height, tillers per plant, grains per spike, spikelets per spike, grain weight, grain yield, biological yield per plant and harvest index, respectively.
  Muhammad Ashraf , Ejaz Rasul and Muhammad Saleem
  There was a decrease in all the biological criteria studied with an increase in dose of gamma rays in the M1 generation. A dose dependent response was observed (seedling shoot length, r = - 0.998; root length, r = - 0.985; and pollen fertility, r = - 0.968) and at higher doses the effect was drastic. The LD50 (dose at which 50% lethality would occur) values for all biological end points were relatively moderate. In the M2 generation, the chlorophyll mutation frequency increased in a linear fashion at low to medium (10-20 kR) and was erratic at higher doses. The chlorophyll mutant spectrum included xantha, albina, viridis, tigrina, light green, and dark green. A dose of more or less 20 kR may prove to be an appropriate for inducing chlorophyll mutations in macrosperma lentils studied.
  Falak Noor , Muhammad Ashraf and Abdul Ghafoor
  Phenotypic and genotypic variances, heritability in broad sense (h2), genetic advance (GA), correlation and path coefficient analyses were conducted for yield and yield components in 30 genotypes of chickpea under rainfed conditions. Medium to high genetic variance was observed for days to flowering, maturity, secondary branches and 100-seeds weight, whereas for other characters, low to medium heritablity (broad sense) was observed along with low to high genetic advance. Improvement of these traits thorough direct selection could be limited from germplasm used in the present study. Days to flowering, days to maturity and 100-seed weight exhibited high heritablity coupled with high genetic advance, hence crop improvement through these traits could be possible by simple selection. It was concluded that to improve grain yield emphasis should be given on development of chickpea cultivars with higher seed weight and biological yield. To break undesirable linkage of biological yield Vs harvest index and grain yield Vs harvest index, bi-parental mating among selective parents is suggested for further improvement. Both correlation and path analyses indicated that pods per plant and 100-seed weight were potent contributors to grain yield through direct effects. Seven elite accessions which produced higher grain yield than both the checks were selected and suggested for further evaluation under various ecological zones for adaptation.
  Aneela Sardar , Muhammad Ashraf and Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar
  A pot experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad to study the effect of potash levels viz. 100 and 200 K 2 O ha 1 on Nitrogen, phosphorus, Potassium, chlorophyll and protein content of young mature leaves at flower initiation stage (50 days after seeding) in three resistant cotton varieties namely CIM443, CIM109, CIM446 during the year 1999. Potassium content was significantly increased with increasing K2O levels and it was maximum at 200 kg K2O ha-1 in all the varieties. Nitrogen content of young mature leaves decreased significantly with increasing K2O levels while protein content of young mature leaves increased significantly with increasing K2O levels and overall maximum increase of 37.5% was observed at 200 kg K2O ha-1. Phosphorus content of young mature leaves increased significantly with potash application and it was maximum at 100 kg K2O ha-1. In conclusion, application of potash did not affect the leaf chlorophyll content but significant differences in leaf chlorophyll content of different varieties were observed. However, an increase of 15.63% in leaf chlorophyll content was found with addition of 200 kg K2O ha-1.
  Aneela Sardar , Muhammad Ashraf and Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar
  A pot experiment was conducted at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad to study the effect of potash on internal leaf tissues of selected cotton varieties namely CIM443 CIM109, CIM446. Results of micro-morphological studies of cotton leaves showed that epidermal and mesophyll cells of leaves were more turgid, uniform, occupied more surface area, symmetrical and structurally improved with the addition of potash. Microscopic examination of thin cross sections of cotton leaves showed that there were a large number of starch grains present in cotton leaves without Potassium. The number of starch grains in leaves decreased with increasing K2O levels in the leaves of K treated cotton plants. The thickness of epidermal region (cuticle plus epidermis) was also increased significantly with the application of potash. The cotton leaf thickness was significantly increased with increasing K levels in all cotton varieties.
  Sumaira Rizwan , Iftikhar Ahmad , Muhammad Ashraf , Shagufta Aziz , Tahira Yasmine and Adeela Sattar
  About 2.6 million women collect cotton from 9 major cotton growing district of Pakistan. Health hazards to women cotton pickers show that out of 2.6 million women, 2.2 million women get sick from their exposure to pesticides. Women are very actively involved in agricultural activities because agriculture is generally a family affair but women`s involvement in agriculture is wrapped in a mist of socio-cultural stereotype. Women cotton pickers complain of dizziness, muscular pain and suffocation due to acute pesticides poisoning because of inhalation of fumes. However as women access to the health care is minimum, there is no monitoring as to absorption of pesticides, pesticides level in blood and their effect on reproductive health. Several pesticides such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides are known to be endocrine disrupters (EDCs). It was hypothesized that occupational exposure to pesticides after a spraying season causes changes in hormonal levels that might be detected in a short-term study. Analysis was performed to check the changes in reproductive hormones before and after a spraying season in the groups of women farmers exposed and not exposed to pesticides. The result of the study showed that both in pre season and post season significant differences for LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol were found both in cotton pickers and non pickers present at the different stages of their reproductive cycle. while a comparison with in the cotton pickers present at same stages of their reproductive cycle in both pre and post season also showed a significant increase of hormonal level in post season. From this study it was concluded that pesticides might be affecting the hormonal levels of cotton pickers in Khairpur area. Since it was a short term study a long term study is required to confirm this effect.
  Aneela Sardar , Muhammad Ashraf and Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar
  A pot experiment was conducted at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad to study the effect of potash on boll weight, boll size and seed cotton yield in the newly developed highly resistant cotton varieties namely CIM443, CIM109 and CIM446 during the year 1999. The results revealed that boll weight was increased significantly with increasing K2O levels and it was maximum at 200 kg K2O ha-1. Boll size was significantly increased with the application of potash and maximum boll size was observed in plants where K2O was applied @ 200 kg ha-1. However, no significant difference was observed in boll size of different varieties. Seed cotton yield increased significantly in all varieties with increasing K2O levels and it was maximum in variety CIM443 at 200 kg K2O ha-1. In conclusion, the boll characteristics are improved and seed cotton yield increased significantly with the application of an appropriate dose of potash in the newly developed highly resistant cotton varieties.
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