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Articles by Muhammad Siddique
Total Records ( 4 ) for Muhammad Siddique
  Muhammad Akbar Shahid , Muhammad Siddique , Sajjad-Ur-Rehman , Sajid Hameed and Abid Hussain
  The present study was conducted to monitor the presence of antibiotic residues in poultry meat. Swab Test on Animal Food (STAF) employing Bacillus subtilis as test organism on nutrient agar with 0.4% dextrose at pH 7, was used. A spore suspension of 2x107 spores mL-1 was used in 100 mL of nutrient agar to make STAF plates. A total of 100 tissue samples (33 liver, 33 kidney and 34 muscles) were collected from local market of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Thirteen (39.4%) liver, 9 (27.3%) kidney and 7 (20.6%) muscle samples were detected positive for antibiotic residues. Antibiotic sensitivity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Oxytetracycline, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Enrofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, Benzyl Penicillin, Streptomycin and Tylosin against Bacillus subtilis was determined to be 0.6100, 0.0549, 0.1525, 0.1525, 0.0023, 0.0143, 0.0095, 0.0380 and 0.0023 μg, respectively. It is concluded from the study that STAF test can be used for the preliminary detection of antimicrobial residues in poultry tissues.
  Muhammad Siddique and Mohammad Arshad
  In wheat-sugar-cane-fodder agro-system the pattern of abundance and movement of the bandicoot rat (Bandacota bengalensis) was studied. The area was divided into six blocks each of 25 acers in size. Each month 8 acers of land under wheat, sugar-cane and fodder crops was randomly selected and sampled for the rat, using snap traps. Sugar-cane was found to be the most preferred crop by the bandicoot rat; the average trap success being 4.10%. This crop provide shelter to the rats almost throughout the year. Fodder crops were next to the sugar-cane in order of preference crop having an average trap success 1.35%. This crop also provide shelter to the rats throughout the year. The bandicoot rat started moving into the wheat crop in February and started feeding on wheat plants in booting stage. The rat attained peak abundance in the wheat crop in March and April. The average trap success for this crop was noted as 0.82%. The fall season is the best time and the sugar-cane and fodder crops are the best sites for applying the rodenticides.
  Muhammad Akbar Shahid , Muhammad Siddique , Muhammad Abubakar , Muhammad Javed Arshed , Muhammad Asif and Arfan Ahmad
  In present study, status of Oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in chicken meat was determined in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area of Pakistan. Preliminary screening of samples for the presence of antibiotic residues was performed by a microbiological assay using Bacillus subtilis as test organism. OTC in positive samples was detected and quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) following extraction of the analytes with McIlvaine buffer and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) system. A linear calibration curve was obtained with correlation coefficient of 0.9981 while average recoveries were greater than 91% with RSD values between 1.64 to 2.07%, while the Limit of Detection (LOD) was 0.01 μg mL-1. Out of 29 meat samples that were analyzed for OTC residues, 13 (44.8%) had detectable residue levels for OTC and 6 (20.7%) had higher residue levels than the recommended maximum residue level (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 μg g-1) for muscles, liver and kidney, respectively. The method described in this study would be useful for routine monitoring of OTC residues in chicken meat.
  Muhammad Siddique , Yasir Nawaz , Farah Riaz , Muhammad Ali Tarar , Zarqa Azhar , Arshad Hussain Hashmi and Abdul Waheed
  In the maternal and child health nutrition plays a vital role. It has been noted that the poor maternal nutrition status is directly responsible for the adverse birth out come. The aim of the present study is to find out the effects of malnutrition on women reproductive health in Punjab. Multistage sampling techniques were used for data collection. At the first stage two Districts i.e. Faisalabad and Multan of Punjab province were selected randomly. At the second stage four tehsils, two from each district (Tehsil Faisalabad and Tehsil Jaranwala from District Faisalabad and Tehsil Multan and Tehsil Shujabad from District Multan) were selected randomly from the selected districts, than 12 localities, three from each tehsil (Chak No. 59/JB, 30/JB and 31/JB from Tehsil Faisalabad, Chak No. 60/GB, 55/GB and 54/GB from Tehsil Jaranwala and Khokhran, Mithal Shah and Gondian from Tehsil Shujabad and Ghalu, Sanhbai and Hasnabad from Tehsil Multan) were selected randomly. A sample of 300 respondents (25 from each locality) selected purposively. It was found that majority of the respondents were eating vegetables and less than a half of them were drinking milk on daily basis. A very few of the respondents were drinking juices and eating meat on daily basis. A majority of the sampled women were taking three meals in a day and about one-fourth of the respondents were aware about balance diet. It is clear from the findings that the respondents had many health problems i.e., headache (61.7%), high blood pressure (60.3%), back pain (54.7%), swelling on different body parts (41.3%), irregular menses (33.0%), hand, facial swelling (32.7%), urinary complications (28.3%), cramps and abdominal pain (26.7%), vaginal bleeding (25.0%) and some of them had anemia and heavy bleeding. Less than a half of the respondents (45.0%) used any contraceptive method and one-fourth of them were observed its side effects. According to the research findings malnutrition had many bad impact on women and child health i.e., low weight baby, poor feeding practices, adverse pregnancy outcomes, low energy and nutrient dense foods, anemia, iron deficiency and poor physical activities. Main cause of malnutrition among the women were poverty, illiteracy, ignorance, socio-economic and environmental factors and poor water/sanitation and health services. Bi-variate analysis shows that education, income, age at marriage, eating pattern, awareness about balance diet, food security, household food expenditure were positively associated with reproductive health status and age and total no. of pregnancies were negatively associated with reproductive health status. There is a dire need to improve the health facilities available at government Health Centers especially at BHUs to address the reproductive health problems that will surely improve women’s health status.
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