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Articles by R. AHMAD
Total Records ( 17 ) for R. AHMAD
  N. Huda , Y.H. Shen , Y.L. Huey , R. Ahmad and A. Mardiah
  The aim of the study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of commercial beef meatballs. A total of six samples of beef meatballs from different manufacturers were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral content (Ca and Na), color and textural analysis. The proximate analysis showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) difference among the samples. There was a large variation in the Ca and Na content in commercial beef meatballs. Significant differences among the samples’ colors (L, a, b values) were also observed. All samples were significantly different in terms of the folding test, but not significantly different in terms of hardness, except for one sample that had a high hardness value. The study revealed showed that there were variations in the nutritional values as well as the textural properties in Malaysian beef meatballs produced by different manufacturers.
  N. Huda , I. Ismail and R. Ahmad
  The study was envisaged to determine the effect of washing processes (unwashing and a single washing) and addition of palm oil (0, 3 and 6%) on the proximate compositions and physicochemical properties of the duck sausages. Washing was carried out at meat to water ratio of 1:1 (w/v). Samples with higher oil levels demonstrated significantly higher fat content and at the same evidence showed lower moisture and protein contents. Treated samples were lighter after washing, while their yellowness value increased with fat content. In regards to texture profile analysis, samples with lower levels added oil had higher values for hardness and shear force and the microstructure of the samples became less porous after washing. It can be concluded that, quality characteristics of sausages were affected by washing processes and oil addition.
  N. Huda , A.A. Putra and R. Ahmad
  In the present study, two different samples of buffalo skin crackers were analyzed for their chemical composition, linear expansion, specific volume, color and amino acid content. The method of analysis is according to official method. The results indicated that both buffalo skin cracker samples had high protein content and that pre-fried skin crackers contained more protein than fried skin crackers. The expansion parameters of the buffalo skin crackers indicated that the sample that was lighter in weight, of smaller size and of lower moisture content expanded more during frying. According to amino acid data, the most common amino acid in the buffalo skin crackers was glycine. Chemical score, amino acid score and amino acid index were calculated from the amino acid data; these results indicated that the quality of protein in the buffalo skin crackers was lower than that of meat. Skin crackers have higher protein content but lower protein quality than common meat products in the market. The attendance of this cracker was diversifying the meat-based food products.
  A.A. Putra , N. Huda and R. Ahmad
  In the process of manufacturing duck meatballs, three different fillers (corn, sago and cassava) are used as representatives of grain, root and palm sources of fillers. Different stages of duck meatball processing, such as dough, pre-heating and heating, were analyzed to further the research on the manufacturing process of duck meatballs. In this study, the nutritional contents, physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes are collected. In general, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the fillers in the characteristics that we examined. However, there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the different stages of the processing. After preheating and heating, the moisture contents were significantly increased (p<0.05) and the increase in moisture content directly caused other nutrient components to decrease. The pH, lightness, texture, cooking yield, moisture retention, diameter and folding test results were increased (p<0.05) after the preheating and heating stages. Cassava treatment showed a significant higher (p<0.05) in the terms of aroma of the final products meanwhile other sensory attributes were not significantly different (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation for overall acceptability showed that all treatments were acceptable.
  A.P. Aronal , N. Huda and R. Ahmad
  The amino acid and fatty acid profiles of the breasts and thighs of Peking and Muscovy ducks were analyzed in this study. Amino acid profiles were performed in duplicate and fatty acid profiles were performed in triplicate. The chemical score, amino acid score and essential amino acid index were calculated from the amino acid profiles, whereas the SFA, MUFA, PUFA, ω3, ω6 and ω6:ω3 ratio were calculated from the fatty acid profiles. In general lysine and methionine were the highest EAA found in Pecking and Muscovy ducks, whereas their methionine contents were relatively higher than in other poultry meat. Muscovy meat possesses a higher (p<0.05) chemical and amino acid score compared to Peking duck meat. No significant difference (p>0.05) in the EAA index was observed between different body parts and different species. The concentration of the fatty acid C18:1ω9 was the highest observed in both Peking and Muscovy duck species. The SFA of Muscovy breast was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Peking breast. The MUFA of Muscovy was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Peking duck, both in breast and thigh cuts; moreover, the MUFA of Muscovy thigh was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to that of Muscovy breast. The PUFA of Muscovy breast was significantly lower than that of Peking breast. Both Peking and Muscovy ducks meats show high protein quality and are good sources of fatty acids for human consumption.
  M.H.N.M. Nasir , R. Ahmad and N.H. Hassan
  This research attempted to identify and analyze main resistance factors which influenced the implementation of the software process improvement project specifically companies operated in Malaysia including local and multi-national companies. The findings helped other software companies to manage future projects through the use of preventive actions or proper planning which intended to lessen anticipated problems during software process improvement projects implementation. This research used a survey instrument to gather data from 29 companies operated across Malaysia with the total of 174 business and software professionals responded. Average of 4 to 8 questionnaires were distributed to each company with the objective of getting wider views on each SPI project. The questionnaires were mainly distributed to professionals who are directly involved in SPI projects. The results showed that the most critical resistance factor is lack of adhesion and participation of the entire individual involved in SPI projects.
  M. Rafi Raza , Faiz Ahmad , N. Ikram , R. Ahmad and A. Salam
  The wrought aluminum alloy 2219 was developed using an induction furnace followed by forging and hot rolling for the improvement of properties. Then the alloy was solution treated at 535°C for 48 min followed by water quenched and then aged at 210, 230 and 240°C for different time period. The maximum tensile strength of 411 MPa and hardness of 113.7 HV were achieved at 210°C after 4 h aging. The tensile strength of 368.12 MPa and hardness of 95.32 HV were obtained at 240°C after only 1.5 h aging time. The strength and hardness values of aged alloy specimens obtained in this work were reasonably higher (strength 51% and hardness 81%) than the specimens which were solution treated and quenched. Microstructures of the aged specimens also provided an evidence of dispersion of second phase precipitates particles in the single phase matrix.
  N. Huda , R.S. Dewi and R. Ahmad
  Commercial smoked fish from two species of Catfish (Macrones nemurus and Cryptopterus micronema) were purchased from local markets and analyzed for their proximate composition, color and amino acid profile. Proximate analysis showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the samples. Smoked Macrones nemurus showed higher fat contents and lower protein contents compared to smoked Cryptopterus micronema. The protein and fat contents of Macrones nemurus were 32.25 and 32.06%, respectively and they were 38.81 and 8.02%, respectively for Cryptopterus micronema. Color analysis showed that there were no significant differences among the samples. The color range of L (lightness), a (redness) and b (yellowness) values of the samples were 40.12-41.59, 5.84-6.28 and 20.79-21.74, respectively. The samples showed the presence of essential amino acids. Smoked Cryptopterus micronema fish showed a higher chemical score, amino acid score and essential amino acid index compared to smoked Macrones nemurus fish. The chemical score, amino acid score and essential amino acid index for smoked Cryptopterus micronema fish were 70.81, 100.00 and 83.18, respectively and were 69.57, 85.69 and 77.62 for Macrones nemurus. Generally, these results showed that the quality characteristics of smoked fish are influenced by the fish species, smoking process or other factor. However the smoking process did not cause a reduction in protein quality.
  R. Ahmad , N. Ahmad and M. A. Pervez
  Remote sensing of crop water stress using infrared radiation thermometers is one of the several important remote sensing applications. Remotely-sensed infrared canopy temperatures provide an efficient method for rapid, nondestructive monitoring of whole plant response to water stress. A logical extension of this technology is the use of canopy temperatures in screening crop genotypes for drought resistance. The potntial of using canopy temperatures in evaluating the genotypic response to drought is reviewed in this paper.
  M. Ayub , R. Ahmad , A. Tanveer , J. Iqbal and M.S. Sharar
  Seed yield in green gram was increased progressively with phosphorus application up to 75 kg P2O5 ha–1. The application of P2O5 more than 75 kg ha–1 depressed the yield and yield components. Maximum increase in seed yield, recorded at 75 kg P2O5 ha–1 was about 92% of control. Higher seed yield with phosphorus application was related to the higher number of pod bearing branches, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-grain weight. Protein contents were also influenced significantly by phosphorus application, being maximum (27.01%) at phosphorus level of 75 kg ha–1. Phosphorus application of 75 kg ha–1 seems to be the optimum level for harvesting higher yield in green gram.
  Z.H. Naqvi , M. Mushtaq-ul-Hassan , Z. Chaudry , M. Akram and R. Ahmad
  Commercial laying hens (Babcock) 174-weeks-old, were given feed containing 1, 2 and 3% EM4 for a period of 12 weeks. EM4 did not influence live body weight. Egg production was greater in birds given feed containing 1 and 2% EM4 but lower in birds given feed containing 3% EM4 than the control birds. Blood glucose was significantly lesser in birds given feed containing 3% EM4 than the control (p<0.05). Serum phosphorus was significantly lesser in birds given feed containing 3% EM4 than the control birds (p<0.01). Serum total proteins, serum albumin, serum globulins, serum total lipids and serum cholesterol were not influenced significantly with the EM4 treatment. The study suggests that EM4 is a safe product for laying birds it increases egg production when mixed in feed.
  M. Ayub , R. Ahmad , A. Tanveer and I. Ahmad
  Response of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Sadaf, Sultan, Sarhad White and Golden to two sowing methods, i.e., broadcast and line sowing was studied under field conditions. Significant differences were observed amongst the cultivars for plant height, leaf area per plant, stem diameter, fresh fodder yield and ether extractable fat percentage. Cultivar ‘Sultan’ proved superior to all other cultivars with respect to higher fodder yield of better quality. Plant population was significantly higher under line sowing where as fodder yield and all other yield parameters studied were not significantly affected by sowing methods.
  M. Ayub , R. Ahmad , A. Tanveer , Hafiz Z. Ahmad and M.S. Sharar
  Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150 and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha–1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha–1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha–1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha–1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha–1, respectively, Sucrose contents and commercial cane sugar were not affected significantly by fertilizer application. However, variety SPSG-26 gave significantly higher sucrose contents (18.82%) and commercial cane sugar (12.89%) than SPSG-394 and BL-4. The fertilizer application at 200-150-150 kg NPK ha–1 was found to be optimum level for achieving maximum cane yield.
  A. Tanveer , M. Ayub , A. Ali , R. Ahmad and M. Ayub
  A field experiment comprising two row spacing viz. 60 and 75 cm and five durations of weed-crop competition i.e. competition for 20, 30, 40, 50 days after emergence and till harvest was conducted to observe growth and yield response of maize. There was gradual increase in dry weight of weeds with increased weed-crop competition duration. Decrease in number of grains per cob and 1000-grain was recorded with increased competition duration of weeds. Maize grain yield was increased from 1911.61 kg ha–1 in plots where weeds competed with crop till harvest to 3708.33 kg ha–1 in plots where weeds were allowed to compete for 20 days after emergence.
  M.A.H. Anwar , S.U. Rahman and R. Ahmad
  Fifteen isolates of Pasteurella multocida from clinical cases of haemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes were confirmed by morphological, cultural, biochemical characteristics and slide agglutination test using antiserum against Robert type-I. Enrofloxacin and norfloxacin were highly sensitive to 93.7 and 75 percent of isolates, respectively and no resistance was observed, followed by gentamicin (62.5%), amoxacillin (37.5%), combination of trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole (31.2%) and ampicillin (18.7%). Norfloxacin and enrofoxacin should be considered as drug of choice in haemorrhagic septicemia keeping in view acute nature of the disease. Use of ampicillin and amoxacillin should be discouraged due to the emergence of β lactamase activity in isolates. The maximum percentage of isolates was resistant to erythromycin (81.2%) and kanamycin (62.5%), followed by oxytetracycline (37.5%) and doxycycline (25%).
  A hydroponics experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of potassium (K) and silicon (Si) in mitigating the deleterious effects of NaCl on sugarcane genotypes differing in salt tolerance. Two salt-sensitive (CPF 243 and SPF 213) and two salt-tolerant (HSF 240 and CP 77-400) sugarcane genotypes were grown for six weeks in ½ strength Johnson's nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was salinized by two NaCl levels (0 and 100 mmol L−1 NaCl) and supplied with two levels of K (0 and 3 mmol L−1) and Si (0 and 2 mmol L−1). Applied NaCl enhanced Na+ concentration in plant tissues and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced shoot and root dry matter in four sugarcane genotypes. However, the magnitude of reduction was much greater in salt-sensitive genotypes than salt-tolerant genotypes. The salts interfered with the absorption of K+ and Ca2+ and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased their uptake in sugarcane genotypes. Addition of K and Si either alone or in combination significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited the uptake and transport of Na+ from roots to shoots and improved dry matter yields under NaCl conditions. Potassium uptake, K+/Na+ ratios, and Ca2+ and Si uptake were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased by the addition of K and/or Si to the root medium. In this study, K and Si-enhanced salt tolerance in sugarcane genotypes was ascribed to decreased Na+ concentration and increased K+ with a resultant improvement in K+/Na+ ratio, which is a good indicator to assess plant tolerance to salt stress. However, further verification of these results is warranted under field conditions.
  R. Ahmad , H.M. Hashim , Z.M. Noor , N.H. Ismail , F. Salim , N.H. Lajis and K. Shaari
  The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of five Malaysian Uncaria species namely U. lucida, U. acida, U. cordata, U. callophylla and U. longiflora var. pteropoda, find any correlation between these two activities and relate them to their phytochemical content. Measurement of antioxidant activities employed ferric thiocyanate (FTC), thiobarbituric (TBA) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays while evaluation of total phenolic contents employed Folin Ciocalteau methods. Antidiabetic potential was evaluated by α-glucosidase inhibitory assays. All tested extracts exhibited very strong antioxidant potential in the FTC and TBA assays. U. longiflora v.p. (stems and leaves) and U. calophylla (stems) exhibited strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 8-20 μg mL-1 compared to 8 μg mL-1 for vitamin C and 7 μg mL-1 BHT. In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the stem extracts of the two plants showed strong α-glucosidase inhibition (>99%). The anti-diabetic activity exhibited by the two plants correlated well with its radical scavenging activities and its phytochemical content. This study has found Malaysian Uncaria to be potentially important sources of antioxidants and anti-diabetic agents, which may be used in prevention and control of type II diabetes.
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