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Articles by Richard Wrobel
Total Records ( 2 ) for Richard Wrobel
  Michel Lauriere , Peter Gorner , Isabelle Bouchez-Mahiout , Richard Wrobel , Christine Breton , Jean-Francois Fabries and Dominique Choudat
  Aerosol particles which deeply penetrate the human airways and which trigger baker’s asthma manifestations are known to represent only a part of flour and of airborne particles found in bakeries. They were a major focus of this study. To this end, aerosols were produced from different wheat and rye flours, using an automatic generator designed for bronchial challenge. Particles were characterized for their size distribution, their ability to be deposited in the airways, their protein content, their histological composition and their reactivity with immunoglobulin E (IgE) present in sera from asthmatic bakers. Like dust particles collected in the bakery, the aerosols produced showed increased protein content but decreased IgE reactive protein content when compared to the corresponding bulk flours. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of these particles showed a predominance of endosperm gluten proteins. Under scanning electron microscopy, flour particles displayed various tissue fragments with entrapped large A-starch and small B- or C-starch granules, whereas aerosol particles appeared primarily as a mixture of the endosperm intracellular interstitial protein matrix and small B- or C-starch granules free or still associated. These observations showed that aerosols supposed to penetrate deeply the airways, mainly correspond to intracellular fragments of endosperm cells enriched in gluten proteins but with lower amount of allergens belonging to albumins or globulins.
  Yves Guichard , Julien Schmit , Christian Darne , Laurent Gate , Michele Goutet , Davy Rousset , Olivier Rastoix , Richard Wrobel , Olivier Witschger , Aurelie Martin , Vanessa Fierro and Stephane Binet
  Potential differences in the toxicological properties of nanosized and non-nanosized particles have been notably pointed out for titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles, which are currently widely produced and used in many industrial areas. Nanoparticles of the iron oxides magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) also have many industrial applications but their toxicological properties are less documented than those of TiO2. In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of commercially available nanosized and microsized anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 particles were compared in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Samples were characterized for chemical composition, primary particle size, crystal phase, shape, and specific surface area. In acellular assays, TiO2 and iron oxide particles were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). At the same mass dose, all nanoparticles produced higher levels of ROS than their microsized counterparts. Measurement of particle size in the SHE culture medium showed that primary nanoparticles and microparticles are present in the form of micrometric agglomerates of highly poly-dispersed size. Uptake of primary particles and agglomerates by SHE exposed for 24 h was observed for all samples. TiO2 samples were found to be more cytotoxic than iron oxide samples. Concerning primary size effects, anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles induced higher cytotoxicity than their microsized counterparts after 72 h of exposure. Over this treatment time, anatase TiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles also produced more intracellular ROS compared to the microsized particles. However, similar levels of DNA damage were observed in the comet assay after 24 h of exposure to anatase nanoparticles and microparticles. Rutile microparticles were found to induce more DNA damage than the nanosized particles. However, no significant increase in DNA damage was detected from nanosized and microsized iron oxides. None of the samples tested showed significant induction of micronuclei formation after 24 h of exposure. In agreement with previous size-comparison studies, we suggest that in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by metal oxide nanoparticles are not always higher than those induced by their bulk counterparts.
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