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Articles by S.E.I. Adam
Total Records ( 7 ) for S.E.I. Adam
  Warda S. Abdel Gadir and S.E.I. Adam
  Pearl millet 1 g/kg day, potassium iodate 50 ppm, and the two combined were fed to male Nubian goats for periods up to 111 days. There was no evidence of any carcinogenic effect of Pearl millet on the thyroid gland or other vital organs, but the main features were goiter and entero-hepatonephropathy. In male goats, dietary potassium iodate was neither toxic nor protective against goiter. Severe damage to the thyroid follicles associated with prominent alopecia, nervous signs and exophthalmia were correlated with changes in serum AST, GGT and ALP activities and total protein, albumin, globulin, total lipid, cholesterol, creatinine, calcium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, iodine and selenium concentrations and with alteration in thyroid, liver, kidneys, heart, spleen and semi-membranous muscles iodine and selenium levels and in hematology.
  E.H. Abdelgadirand and S.E.I. Adam
  Malathion is a pesticide that is widely used in agriculture, residential landscaping, public recreation areas and in public health pest control programs such as mosquito eradication, it is the most commonly used organophosphate insecticide. Malathion were fed to 60 day-old Wistar rats at 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 of diet for 8 weeks. The 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 of dietary Malathion were toxic but not lethal to rats and caused nephrohepatopathy, lymphocytic accumulation in vital organs, after 4 weeks macrocytic hypochromic anaemia and microcytic hypochromic anaemia after 8 weeks. Alterations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and cholesterol, globulin and urea concentrations.
  N.H.A. Rhman , A.O. Bakhiet and S.E.I. Adam
  The present study was planned to elucidate the role of zinc in the modification of toxicity of cadmium with emphasis on vital organ dysfunction. Eighty, 3-months old male Wistar rats were fed cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) mixture for 6 or 12 weeks. Group 2 (10 ppm CdCl2 + 4 ppm ZnCl2), group 3 (100 ppm CdCl2 plus 100 ppm ZnCl2) and group 1 was kept as control rats. The rats fed diet containing 10 ppm CdCl2 plus 4 ppm ZnCl2 of this mixture had the lowest growth rate after 12 weeks, but none of the rats died along the experimental period. Depression in growth, nephropathy, testicular injury and reduction in the size of the splenic white pulp were observed in group 2 and 3. Changes in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotranferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were significant increased in group 2 and 3. Alteration in concentration of total protein, albumin, cholesterol and urea were observed within these two treated groups. At 12 weeks, the values of erythrocytic series in rats of group 2 and 3 did not change. However, the values of platelets were higher in rats in group 2 and 3 then control (group 1). The values of WBC were higher in group 2 than control and group 3 and those of lymphocytes were lower in group 2 and 3 than control rats (group 1). The result indicated that Zn did not reverse the negative effects of Cd in growth and in organs damage particularly the kidneys, testes and spleen. This damage probably contributed to the increase in AST, ALT and ALP activities and cholesterol and urea concentrations with decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations.
  A.A. Amna , E.H. Abdelgadir and S.E.I. Adam
  Ipomoea carnea is known as an ornamental hedge plant in Sudan. The leaves of ipomoea carnea were fed to male wistar rats at 2 and 10% of standard diet for 21 days. Locomotor disturbance, loss of hair and reflexes and interohepatonephropathy were observed in the rats fed a diet containing 10% I. carnea leaves, these changes were accompanied by leukocytosis, anemia and increases in serum aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) activity and urea concentration and by decreased albumin level. The effect on rats fed a diet containing 2% I. carnea leaves is less marked.
  A.M. Abdella , B.H. Elabed , A.O. Bakhiet , W.S.A. Gadir and S.E.I. Adam
  This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms accounting for disruption of the normal spermatogenesis in the testis, exposed to various levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Forty two mature male Albino rats, were divided into six groups; group 1 treated with 100 mg Cd kg-1 diet, group 2 treated with 5 mg Pb kg-1 diet, group 3 with 50 mg Zn kg-1 diet, group 4 treated with mixture of 5 mg Pb +50 mg Cd kg-1 diet, group 5 treated with 50 mg Cd + 25 mg Zn kg-1 diet and group 6 treated with 5 mg Pb +25 mg Zn kg-1 diet for three month. Group 7 was kept as control. Significant increased (p<0.05), of both blood Cd and Pb with loss of both weight and hair associated with testicular enlargement in rats dosed with Cd and/or Pb in the diet. As a consequence these groups showed blockage of spermatogenesis at seminiferous tubules level, maturation arrest and proliferation of the sertoli cells. Where as the group treated with Zn, showed increased weight and increased number of germs cells and developing spermatide in the testicular level. The combined diet of Cd with Pb in one dose exacerbated the toxic action of these elements. While mixing of Zn with Cd and Pb reduced the toxicity of these elements and their effects on development of the germ cell and the proliferation of the sertoli cells.
  Shama I.Y. Adam and S.E.I. Adam
  The effects on rats of the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared from Rhanterium epapposum and Trichodesma africanum aerial parts, given at different dose levels (300, 75 mg/kg/day) and by different routes of administration (orally or intra muscularly (i.m.) were investigated. The results indicated that the plant extracts are toxic and lethal to rats by whatever route (oral or im) it was given. The characteristic features of toxicity from aerial parts of R. epapposum and T. africanum were hepatonephrotoxicity, leukocytosis due to lymphocytosis or leukopenia due to neutropenia and anaemia. The anaemia was macrocytic normochromic, as indicated by the high Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and normal Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) values. These changes were evidenced by alterations in Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and in total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol and urea concentrations. The occurrence of myositis brought about by the plant methanol extract given via intra muscular route probably contributed to the increase in AST activity. As conclude that the two extracts of both plant were toxic in both routs of administration and that, their toxicity result from the fact they contain chemical compound capable of damaging tissues and cells.
  S.A. Omer , S.E.I. Adam and O.B. Mohammed
  Ethanolic and ether extracts of Commiphora myrrha were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus albus) and fungi represented by Candida albicans isolated from gazelles held at King Khalid Wildlife Research Centre, Thumamah. The method used in evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was the two-layer agar diffusion method. The ethanolic extract of C. myrrha exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram negative organisms investigated together with S. albus. On the other hand, the ether extract showed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive organisms investigated and against Candida albicans, with the antifungal activity being greater. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanolic extract against P. aeruginosa and E. coli was found to be 20 and 40 mg mL-1, respectively. While the minimum inhibitory concentration of the ether extract against both S. albus and C. albicans was found to be 10 and 40 mg mL-1 for B. subtilis, respectively.
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