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Articles by Salah A. Khalifa
Total Records ( 2 ) for Salah A. Khalifa
  Salah A. Khalifa , Ahmad A. Omar and Azza H. Mohamed
  Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of using peanut oil extract from peanut seeds (Arachis hypogea L.) variety NC7on the properties of the white soft cheese. Methodology: Quality properties of peanut oil including oxidative stability, characterize and quantitative of tocopherol isomers, antioxidants and the content of free fatty acids was examined before white soft cheese was made by using of fresh skim milk and butter oil 4% (control, C), peanut oil 4% (T1) and addition of two commercial stabilizers to peanut oil cheese, S1 (mono and diglyceride of fatty acids E471 and whey protein powder, 1:1) and S2 (mono and diglyceride of fatty acids E471, guar gum E412, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose E466 and xanthan gum E415, 1:1:1:1). The S1 and S2 stabilizers were added at a ratio of 1% to white soft cheese made by peanut oil as T2 and T3, respectively. Produced cheeses were stored at 5±2°C for three months and examined for chemical analysis, ripening indices, oxidative stability and organoleptic properties. Results: The results showed that using of S1 and S2 as cheese stabilizers decreased the loss of oil in cheese whey comparing with the control treatment as well as the treatment without stabilizer (T1). The fatty acids content of cheeses were varied and the most abundant fatty acids were palmitic acid, stearic acid and myristic acid, which was 35.41, 16.02 and 8.24 %, respectively in control cheese samples (C). These values were higher than the values in treatments T1, T2 and T3, which ranged 10.35-10.56, 4.45-4.98 and 1.16-1.82%, respectively. Conclusion: There were high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared with saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid had a high percentage in cheese containing peanut oil (T1, T2 and T3), which made it more stable for oxidation and recorded high scores for sensory evaluation compared to the control. The use of peanut oil with S1, which containing whey protein powder improved oxidative stability and organoleptic properties of the produced cheese.
  Salah A. Khalifa , El-Sayed M.M. Abdeen , Samah M.S. El-Shafei and Azza H. Mohamed
  Background and Objective: Camel milk has nutritional and therapeutic properties. Quinoa flour has been incorporated into many kinds of food because of its various nutrients and bio-actives. This study aimed to investigate the effect of using quinoa flour on the properties of low-fat camel milk processed cheese spread (LF-CMPCS) made from fermented retentate camel milk as a camel cheese base. Materials and Methods: Quinoa flour was used to substitute 1, 3 and 5% of the camel cheese base made with Ras cheese. The resultant cheeses were analyzed for several parameters. Such as physiochemical, texture properties, antioxidant activity, fatty acids, microstructure and organoleptic properties as fresh and during storage period at 5±1°C for 3 months. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using the SPSS computer program. Results: Total solids, protein, fat/dry matter and soluble nitrogen decreased significantly while the fiber, carbohydrates and pH values increased significantly. Meltability value of LF-CMPCS significantly decreased. The results indicated that the hardness increased significantly with the increase in the addition of quinoa flour. The fatty acid profile indicated a significant increase in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), linolenic (18:3) and eicosenoic (20:1) with the increase of quinoa flour. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the presence of quinoa flour in the space within the casein particle network. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the addition of quinoa flour to camel cheese (up to 3%) can improve the chemical, sensory and microstructure and texture properties of LF CMPCS camel milk cheese without altering the quality of the product.
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